Copper and Compounds Uses

Copper is derived from nature specifically from the break-up or disintegration of rock formations. The uses of this metal are multiple: as seed dressing (as cuprous oxide) and agricultural fungicide (as copper oxychloride or anhydrous and monohydrated copper sulphate or verdigris, a residue from the manufacture of wine), as an chemical agent in the aging of rubber, the preservation of wood (as copper naphthenate or anhydrous and monohydrated copper sulphate),  the luster of silverware,  and the pleasant odor of paints (as copper soaps), the dyeing and strengthening of fabrics and ropes (copper soaps), the coloring of glass and  ceramic designs (as cupric oxide and cupric nitrate), as supplements for deficiencies in animal diets, for oil sweetening in the petroleum industry (as cupric chloride and/or cuprous chloride), the industries of fireworks manufacturing  and photography (as cupric nitrate), electroplating (as copper cyanide) among others. The most popular, however, are the historical uses of this element as copper compounds in gemstones (as turquoise, malachite, and azurite), bronze (the mixture of  copper and tin)  and brass (the mixture of copper and zinc), weapons, currency, and domestic tools.

Health effects of Copper and compounds

Copper as a nutrient is needed to keep the human body in a good state of health. In fact, copper is present in the human body, in the food consumed (ie.organ meats, grains, seafood, legumes, etc.), and in the physical environment. A minimum daily intake of copper is needed for the body’s connective tissues, bones, the nervous system and other vital organs. More quantities of this nutrient are required for lactating mothers. The intensive exposure and inhalation of copper, ingestion through water supplied  through  copper pipes, the body’s  inability to eliminate excess of supply of  copper,  or   its excess consumption  can bring harm to the body in the form of  ailments in the respiratory system, the  gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney problems, and, possibly,  coronary disease.  Diarrhea, nausea, eye irritation, abdominal pain, headache, and muscle aches are typical symptoms of excess levels of copper. Toxic levels of copper are extremely harmful for the liver.  Those who cannot eliminate excess copper for genetic reasons  called Wilson’s disease undergo chelation process. Finally, scientific studies show that under normal conditions, the amount of copper in the human is constant relative to what goes in and what goes out through natural processes.

Environmental Effects of Copper and compounds

Copper is present in all the elements of the environment: soil, the water, and the air. Manufacturing, mining, and agriculture add to the amount of copper circulating in the environment absorbed by human beings. However, copper compounds can be broken down, but elemental or pure copper does not and remains in that form in the environment.  The natural and non-natural sources of copper are waste dumps, volcanic eruptions, domestic waste products, residues from fertilizer, wood, fossil fuel plants decaying organic vegetation among others. Copper from these sources come in the form of dust and residue of combustion and smelting processes. There is no indication of the harmful effects of copper present in elemental and compound forms in the environment. Since copper is basically a nutrient for sustaining life in the planet which is soluble, it emits no harmful effects on the environment unless the residue of the copper mining, manufacturing, and agricultural process is mixed with highly toxic elements.


Acetaldehyde Uses

Acetaldehyde is an organic chemical compound widely present in nature (ie ripe fruits, coffee, and tobacco) and is produced by plants as they break down food for consumption… Also massively produced by industry, it is used to facilitate the production and processing  of other chemicals and substances like perfumes, dyes, preservatives for fruit and fish, flavoring agents, polyester resins, denatured alcohol, gelatin, fuels, rubber, leather, and paper. This chemical compound is a found in the nicotine of tobacco and in the content of cannabis (commonly known as marijuana). It is commonly produced by domestic and industrial sources:  uncompleted combustion of organic materials like wood (ie fireplaces and woodstoves), coffee, tobacco, fossil fuel, coal, and waste. Acetaldehyde manufacture accounts for the world’s production of acetic acid. Hence, human exposure to acetaldehyde happens by inhalation of emissions from these sources. Moreover, acetaldehyde is produced in part by the oxidation of ethanol by the liver (and causes hangovers) among those who excessively consume alcohol evident in their blood content and breath.

Health effects of Acetaldehyde

Researches show that while acetaldehyde, a colorless mobile liquid with a intolerable offensive odor,   breaks down in the human body, this organic element, a product of the thermal degradation of  plastic and  is also  toxic over long periods of exposure, an air pollutant from the emissions from automotive exhaust and tobacco smoke, and a possible carcinogen. As an ambient element, excessive exposure to acetaldehyde causes irritation in the eyes, itchiness in the skin, and respiratory tract system, erythema, and respiratory and blood pressure problems among animals. Symptoms to this element found at toxic levels similar to those of alcoholism occur among human beings.  Among animals, toxic level exposure shows respiratory effects, growth retardation, and increased mortality among post-natal cases. Possible carcinogenic effects on the liver and gastrointestinal tract might be found among human subjects because of excessive consumption of alcohol and   negative respiratory effects for those with massive toxic exposure to emissions from vehicles and tobacco. It is also suspected to increase the risk factor for those who have a genetic predisposition for Alzheimer’s disease.

Environmental Effects of Acetaldehyde

Researches show that acetaldehyde does not have a significant negative impact on the environment at normal levels of tolerance; it contributes to the formation of smog when reacting with organic carbons in the air. Of course, its impact depends on the quantity of acetaldehyde and the extent of its exposure on a certain area as well as the health of the person and the quality of the particular environment. Evaporating upon contact with air and dissolving upon exposure to water, these features of acetaldehyde minimize its toxicity for persons and the environment despite the intensity of output from its conventional sources: dump sites, manufacturing and processing establishments of fossil fuels, cement, wood-based, trash, plastics, etc., power plants, refineries, oil and gas extractions, vehicular exhaust and emissions and residences (building materials, linoleum, wood products, house paints, plastics etc. One critical source of both health and environmental hazards is tobacco smoking which produces the highest level of carcinogens when acetaldehyde synthesizes with nicotine.


Sulfur Dioxide Uses

Sulfur dioxide facilitates the production of sulfuric acid when combined with oxygen known as the contact process. This element is used for the preservation of fruits like figs and apricots maintaining their appearance and preventing their rotting. It is also used for molasses and winemaking serving as antibiotic and antioxidant. The combination of quantities of sulfur dioxide, citric acid and water maintain the cleanliness and hygiene of wineries, wine kegs, and the equipment used for the manufacture of the vintage. Combined with water, sulfur dioxide functions as a bleach causing substances to lose their colors which might be restored by the presence of oxygen in the air. It is also useful in the treatment of chlorinated wastewater. This element is highly soluble in water and was used as refrigerant in domestic refrigerators before the advent of chlorofluorocarbons, as a reagent, and a solvent. Most importantly, it is the residue of a volcanic eruption and its presence in the manufacture and processing of coal or oil makes it a major air pollutant.

Health effects of Sulfur dioxide

The inhalation of sulfur dioxide aggravates existing cardiovascular disease, weakens the respiratory and pulmonary  systems, causes breathing difficulty, and, possibly, death. Sulfur dioxide is regarded as safe as a preservative except for asthmatic individuals. A life-threatening symptom of ingestion of sulfur dioxide is trouble in breathing.  This foul-smelling colorless gas is produced by volcanic activity or by water in hot springs or by the burning of sulfur. The combination of sulfur dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere produces sulfuric acid, a component of acid rain. Hence exposure to sulfur dioxide by inhalation is highly toxic. A single heavy exposure might cause asthma over the long-term and damage the respiratory system.  This gas is highly corrosive and burns (or chill and freezes) the skin upon exposure in the form of gas or liquefied gas. The skin might be permanently scarred of damaged with results l similar to frostbite, numbness, blisters, and/or infection. Contact of the eyes with this gas might cause permanent blindness. On the hand, research has not shown this gas as carcinogenic.

Environmental Effects of Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide belongs to the family of gases, sulfur oxides which are products of the burning of sulfur-laden fuels like coal and oil and the smelting of metals. These processes increase the acidity of water systems (ie lakes, seas, streams, rivers etc.), lessen visibility, accelerate the deterioration of structures and buildings, and cause health problems for human beings.

On the planet Earth, sulfur dioxide exists in minimal quantities. Scientific researches, however, focused on the other planets of the solar system are instructive of the effects of varying concentrations of this gas in higher quantities: This gas appears in the third highest quantity in Venus where it creates cloud formations and increases the surface temperature of the planet.  While it appears in lesser quantity on Mars, it has contributed substantially to the warming of the planet. The volcanoes of Venus, Earth, and Mars are the major sources of this gas in these planets. Jupiter’s moons show the presence in large quantities of this gas in forms of ice and/or liquid visible in the surfaces of Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.


Boron and Compounds Uses

Boron is a very hard black solid material that is not derived from the earth in its elemental form. Although it aids in the synthesis of other chemicals because of the oxygen atmosphere of this planet, it appears on Earth as borate, borax and boric acid and a number of other mineral compounds. Hence, boron is produced through the mining of borax or boron-containing ore worldwide. Mined boron appears in crystalline form and is used in the production of fibers for semi-conductors. Demand for boric acid (an antiseptic –antifungal  also used as insecticide), glass fiber, fiber glass, boron-based glassware, and high-strength ceramics has increased substantially over the last few decades creating a need for more producers of boron-based compounds and minerals.  Agriculture’s demand for boron-based plant nutrients, detergents,  and bleaches has correspondingly expanded.  An industry like aerospace has found more creative use for boron for the construction of structures and materials for instruments like lasers, telescopes, and laboratory equipment. Sports now use boron for the production of golf clubs and fishing rods among other equipment.  The military use boron for the manufacture of tanks and bulletproof vests. Nuclear power plants are built with the use of boron compounds and minerals. Tools and coatings are manufactured with boron which is known for its hardness and toughness.

Health effects of Boron and compounds

Elemental boron believed by some to have reached Earth through a meteorite outer space 3 billion years ago and its compounds and minerals present  in rocks, soil and water are non-toxic to human beings and organisms and plants including fishes. In fact, these elements are found in manufactured plant food and fertilizers. Its toxicity level is comparable to, some sources believe, to table salt. Boric acid, on the other hand, is effectively used as insecticides. Thus, insects are adversely affected by the application of borates. Experiments done on animals show non-conclusive minimal impact on the use of boron and its compounds and minerals.
On the other hand, recent scientific studies show that an over exposure to boron among children are shown by the following symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, skin rash, eye congestion and seizures. Adults’ over exposure are manifested by symptoms of nausea, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty in swallowing. Animal over exposure symptoms are weakening, eye inflammation, swelling of the paws, hyperactivity, rapid respiration, among others.

Environmental Effects of Boron and compounds

Boron’s presence in the environment is a product of weathering of rocks, volcanic and geothermal activity,  sea water and human activity  through consumption and waste and sludge  disposal and extraction (mining) and  manufacturing products ( and their residue) for  different commercial and industrial uses. Boron exposure takes place at workplace. extraction and processing, industrial and manufacturing plants, agricultural sites and the consumption and use of boron-based household products and equipment. Soil, depending on its type, absorbs borates which are absorbed by plants consumed by animals and human beings along the food chain. Thus, the amount of boron absorbed by organisms depends largely on their diet. Bacteria, algae, and adult fish are tolerant to boron, invertebrates are sensitive to boron less than protozoa, All in all, the adverse effects of boron to organisms and the environment are minimal. Researches on the adverse environmental and toxicity of boron-based compounds and minerals are virtually non-existent rationalized by its nature as an organic elements with non-pollutant and non-contaminant characteristics.


Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) Uses

Particulate matter is not a chemical nor an element listed in the periodic table in chemistry. It is the name given to microscopic solid, liquid, and gas particles suspended in the air of varying sizes and degrees of chemical composition depending on their source.  These particles covering the surface of the planet come from the natural processes ranging from sea spray, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, decomposition of organic life among many and human activities (anthropogenic aerosols) ranging from agricultural, manufacturing, industrial, leisure and recreation among others. The residue resulting from human activities constitutes about 10% of the total particulate matter. Wind-blown particulate matter and those which are residue of natural processes are composed of minerals, elements, and organic sediments. Others are residue of human activity and produce gases that negatively affect health and destroy the environment, The composition of these particles also affect solar radiation. Some particles absorb light, others reflect solar radiation. The composition also affects the size of the particles and the size of their areas of distribution. Ultimately, the chemical composition of these particles informs both the health of populations and the state of the environment.

Health effects of Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)

Given the fact that particulate matter is a blanket that surrounds the earth’s surface, it affects the quality of air that human beings inhale. The lighter and finer particles will penetrate deeply into the respiratory and pulmonary systems vis-à-vis the larger ones which will be filtered through the upper respiratory system before these are totally absorbed by the body. Diseases caused by inhalation of pollution bearing particles are the following: asthma, cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases, lung cancer, birth defects, premature delivery, and death.  Moreover, these particles cause the hardening of the arteries leading to heart attack.  In fact, a 2011 research shows that traffic exhaust is the most frequent cause of heart attack. Researches are being conducted to the determine the relationship of particulate matter and the increase in the number of victims of Alzheimer’s disease. International health organizations including the WHO seek to maintain clean air  and  reduce and/or  eliminate the negative impact of constant  exposure to   particulate matter.  Truly research and documentation  show that particulate matter is the most destructive form of
air pollution and a real threat to human life.

Environmental Effects of Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)

The most collectively destructive effect of the circulation of particulate matter worldwide is on the environment. At the elemental level,   particulate matter obstructs the entry of solar radiation and prevents photosynthesis of plants. The presence of these particles in the atmosphere limits visibility and diminishes the quality of the air we breathe and causes death-dealing diseases.  The air pollution resulting from the constant bombardment of emissions from natural and man-made sources is generating destructive changes in the climate of this planet. In the last two decades, the world has seen the onslaught of the most violent and destructive storms, typhoons, and hurricane in places where drastic weather changes of these types never occurred. Volcanic eruptions (many times accompanied by tsunamis)

of unprecedented magnitudes are happening worldwide with emissions that increase the quantity of particles in the atmosphere. Many countries in the world are experiencing the extremes of warm and cold weather.  Icebergs in the two poles are melting and ocean levels are rising threatening the inundation of island states. Initiatives to regulate the use of pollution-bearing fossil fuel, to search  for alternative sources of energy, to manage and control emissions and to promote the goals of sustainable development are being pursued at international, regional, and national levels.


Chlorine Dioxide Uses

Chlorine dioxide is a compound where commercial preparation using methanol-based processes is preferred to ensure efficiency and safety. This compound is volatile and dangerous so it is not transported in any quantity in many countries and is usually manufactured on its site of application. This compound is used as disinfectant but is increasingly applied for water treatment and similar applications. Chlorine dioxide is the most significant method used for bleaching wood pulp and flour worldwide. In fact, 95% of kraft pulp production in the world uses this bleaching compound. Water treatment applications use chlorine dioxide to eliminate suspected carcinogenic-bearing among other impurities in the purification process. This compound, moreover, is less corrosive than other water treatment chemicals and more effective in the elimination of certain types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Its use as an air disinfection compound is increasing as shown by the massive use of chlorine dioxide for buildings in the aftermath of the anthrax attacks in the United States and the elimination of molds in flooded structures resulting from the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina. It is also used for the prevention and elimination of molds and yeast in fruits of the berry family. It is also used for the destruction and prevention of bedbugs.

Health effects of Chlorine dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is released to the air, water, and the environment as residue from the chlorine dioxide using water treatment applications and chemicals. Human beings come into contact with this compound through drinking water that was treated with this compound or the consumption of fruits whose surfaces were treated with this compound to avoid the formation of molds and yeast. When this compound enters the body it is broken down into ions and eliminated as urine within a few hours since it reacts quickly to moisture inside the body and in the environment, Since the likelihood of exposure to large amounts of chlorine dioxide  and its long-term retention is extremely low, is and when exposure to this compound exceed normal quantities, irritation in the respiratory (ie nose, throat, and lungs)  and/or digestive (ie mouth, esophagus, and stomach)  system occurs accompanied by shortness of breath. Research conducted on animals shows that exposure in large quantities to this compound results delays brain development.

Environmental Effects of Chlorine dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is not associated or implicated as a harmful substance in the content of environmental degradation and destruction issues and discourses related to air pollution, the depletion of the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect, the rising of ocean levels etc. This element and its compounds are  highly reactive,  mobile, and easily dissolved in water into less harmful  substances. It also breaks down easily when exposed to air, so one cannot easily inhale high-level doses of this substance. The low-level residues left in the human body are normally eliminated through the urine.


Mercury & Compounds Uses

Mercury is liquid metal that is silver in color used in the manufacture of scientific instruments like the barometer and manometer because of its constancy despite high thermal changes. It is also used in the manufacture of other chemicals and compounds and, as an amalgam, combines well with other elements.  As a good conductor of electricity, it is also used in the manufacture of electrical gear, batteries, and fluorescent lighting. Mixed with other elements, it can be used as medicine, rat poison, insecticide, in the manufacture of pigments and colors, a catalyst, and a detonator. Found in nature as a result of the breaking down of minerals in rocks caused by air and water, mercury enters the environment through the use of fertilizer and waste water disposal. While not used as an element in food stuff, mercury in excess contaminates the aquatic and non-aquatic food chain derived from food eaten  by human beings: meat from the feeds animals consume and the insecticides sprayed on vegetables.

Health effects of Mercury & compounds

Mercury can be harmful to human beings specifically within households when the trapped element inside a fixture or instrument is accidentally released and its vapors are inhaled. It can damage the nerves, the brain, stomach, intestines, and the kidney and cause irritation of the eyes and the respiratory system, skin rashes, vomiting, and diarrhea. At worst, it can damage the brain, the DNA chromosomes, and sperms resulting in birth defects and mongolism. Mercury is toxic particularly in the following types; its elemental form, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury (or methyl mercury). Acute short term exposure to elemental mercury damages the central nervous systems and substantially affects its motor and sensory functions. Irritability, tremors, excitability and mood changes result out of this exposure. Kidney damage is the consequence of the exposure of inorganic mercury through ingestion and consumption of food contaminated with mercury. Defects in the central nervous system and abnormal and retarded growth and development are the results of exposure to methyl mercury.

Environmental Effects of Mercury & compounds

Environmental contamination by mercury in its toxic forms is the object of extensive scientific research worldwide. Clearly based on the realities generated by the contamination of mercury in the food consumed by human beings, research shows that contamination starts with contact of mercury with microorganisms in water creating methyl mercury which is consumed by fish and other aquatic animals which, in turn, is eaten by human beings. The harmful consequences of this passage of mercury-laden food along the food chain  on human health is  well-documented as it informs the disastrous impact of mercury on the central nervous system, the kidneys, and the digestive system.  Non- conclusive findings among animals and human beings relate mercury to cancer. To this date, however, no research findings associate the presence of mercury to the quality of air, the amount of air pollution, ozone layer depletion, climate change or other parameters and indicators related to environmental degradation or deterioration.


Antimony and Compounds Uses

Antimony is a silver-grey lustrous metallic substance that is abundant in nature. In ancient societies, it was widely used for cosmetics purposes specifically for eye khol, particularly in Egypt. Today, it is popularly used as alloy for tin and lead to strengthen these elements. It is widely used for the manufacture of military equipment and hardware, batteries, low-friction metals, type metal and cable sheathing.  Its use as flame/fire retardants for domestic and household products (ie children’s toys and clothing, aircraft, automobile seat covers, plastics, textiles, rubber, adhesives, paper etc.) expand the exposure of human beings especially children to the effects of this substance. Its industrial uses include the fiberglass industry, microelectronics and semi-conductors, the manufacture of pewters, linotypes, solders, pipe organs, polyethyleneterephthalate, pigments, and the removal of bubbles in glass.  Veterinary medicine uses antimony for the treatment of animals.  It is also used for the treatment of parasitical infections in human subjects.

Health effects of Antimony and compounds

Human exposure to antimony consists in inhalation of the element in its dust form, ingestion through food consumption and drinking water, and exposure of the skin to the elements bearing antimony especially from water and soil. The most critical source of contamination and health hazard for human beings is through inhalation of antimony bond to hydrogen as a gas, This causes irritation of the eyes, the skin, and parts of the respiratory system and pulmonary systems, Prolonged and large quantity exposure to antimony can cause respiratory and pulmonary illness, vomiting, stomach ulcers, and diarrhea. Researches, however, do not show the association of exposure to antinomy as directly related to cases of cancer and birth or growth and developmental defects traced to the reproductive system. Where used to treat parasitical infection among human subjects, the origins of the infection are rationalize more logically by the medical history of the individual rather than exposure to antinomy.

Environmental Effects of Antimony and compounds

Existing research on the effects of the presence of antimony in the environment shows that this element has no impact on the quality of the air, pollution and emissions, climate change, global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer, the rise of water levels of the oceans, the melting of ice caps and other related issues and concerns. Antimony while present in tolerable quantities in organic life the soil, air, and water does not seem to alter the chemical composition of the ecosystem.  On the other hand, animal life is affected significantly by exposure to large quantities of antimony. Researches show that antimony may cause severe damage in the liver, kidney, heart and lungs and eventual death of small animal like guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits.  Other animals may suffer from irritation, hair loss, lung and/or heart and fertility problems given to a large exposure of antimony. These symptoms are similar to those which afflict human beings who have experienced large and/or frequent exposure to this element.


Lead & Compounds Uses

Lead is a widely use element for household  and personal care products and the construction of buildings and structures. It is also used for the manufacture of batteries, metal products, pigments and paints, high octane fuel for cars (which has been phased out in 1996), aircraft,  and race cars. In fact, its use as pigment in cosmetics and hygienic products has been the focus of a public scrutiny by health and environmental groups. Indeed, lead is suspect as a culprit in what is commonly known as “lead poisoning” of human subjects by ingestion and inhalation. This campaign against lead-based household products eventually included the lead pipes which bring drinking water to homes and lead-based paints which were used in building structures, The exposure of human beings to lead in paints and the accumulation of lead in deteriorating structures endangered lives through the inhalation of this substance. The delivery of water through lead pipes and the use of lipsticks and other personal care products increased fear and public concern over ingesting significant harmful quantities of lead.

Health effects of Lead & compounds

Inhalation and ingestion of high quantities of lead can lead to defects in the circulatory, nervous, cardiovascular, immune, and renal systems of the human body. Researches detect damage and defects in the gastro-intestinal and reproductive systems particularly the brains and the kidneys, exposure of animals to lead in large dozes causes cancer. The reliable indicator for lead exposure is the amount of lead found in the blood. Exposure to lead (or at the extreme, lead poisoning) comes from   lead in fossil fuel,  household and personal care products and children’s toys, deteriorating building materials, lead manufacturing and lead based industries an waste incineration, and drinking water.
Lead ingested in large quantities result in stomach pain, vomiting, colic, and constipation.  The negative effects on health, as shown by researches,  associate lead exposure to neurotoxicity, growth and development problems, hypertension, hearing problems, hemoglobin synthesis problems, and reproductive problems among men. Effects like these are generic and might be evident without visible signs of toxicity. Behavior patterns among children under 6 years old make them more vulnerable to lead exposure.

Environmental Effects of Lead & compounds

Scientific research has established the toxicity of lead and its negative effects on organic life. In fact, the toxicity of lead has lead to the adaption of stringent government policies minimizing its impact and presence in the environment. Today, monitoring systems   and regulatory bodies manage and control lead toxicity and contamination in water, manufactured products, and air. These address the problems and harm that arise out of ingestion and inhalation of toxic qualities of lead.  Actual examples of the effectiveness of these policies are evident in the removal of lead from the manufacture of automotive fuel and pigments used in paints for structures and pigments for household and personal care products including children’s toys. Guidelines for the renovation of structures, specifically residences, are closely monitored to prevent excessive exposure to lead. Most importantly, soil for growing food and water systems that deliver drinking water to households are monitored closely for the presence of lead beyond levels that might be injurious to human health.


Formaldehyde Uses

Formaldehyde is an organic compound that appears in gas form that is colorless and offensive in smell. It is widely used a s formalin (mixed in water) as disinfectant and in the preservation of biological specimens and in the embalming of human remains as well as in cosmetics as hardener or nail varnish. Because of its widespread use as a domestic product in many instances, it is known as a carcinogenic with high toxicity and volatility. This organic compound is used extensively in the automotive industry for engines, door panels, transmission, axels, and electrical systems and in the manufacture of paper products, alcohols and explosives, hair smoothing treatments, disinfectant of bacteria and fungi, and viruses in vaccines, and personal care products. It is used to preserve organisms including human remains to facilitate post-mortem medical analysis and investigation. Other uses for formaldehyde are in the process of drug-testing and photography where minimum quantities are used for processing pictures and film.

Health effects of Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is highly toxic, an allergenic, and a carcinogenic, Given its extensive use in household products and in the construction of structures, it is the most potent source of domestic toxicity and pollution. The Ingestion of high quantity of this element is the cause of immediate death and the severe burning of the gastrointestinal system. Symptoms of overexposure to this element to formaldehyde causes irritation of the eyes, the nose, and the mucous membrane and headaches, burning sensation of the respiratory tract and stimulate and asthma attack. Researches associate exposure to this organic compound with reproductive problems among women factory workers. cancers of the respiratory system, leukemia, Residues from the manufacturing processes using this element generate toxicity in wood products and cigarettes at home. Patch tests show that exposure to this element is highly allergenic particularly in parts of the body with a high level of exposure to formaldehyde. The eyes are the most sensitive organ to exposure to this organic compound.

Environmental Effects of Formaldehyde

While scientific research shows that formaldehyde is injurious to human health, no studies directly associate formaldehyde with the deterioration and fundamental changes in environmental conditions like global warming, air pollution, the melting of ice caps, ozone layer depletion, climate change, the occurrence of major natural disasters, among others. Formaldehyde is not retained in the physical environment and does not affect flora and fauna within a certain vicinity despite exposure in varying quantities. It is removed by reaction with other substances and is easily broken down in water and soil where it settles. Like human subjects, it is possible that in rare cases, formaldehyde may destroy plants and agricultural products. The environment is not degraded in contrast to human subjects whose exposure ranges from the quantities of formaldehyde reaching pollution levels used as ingredients in the manufacture of wood products for the construction of homes, automotive parts, and household and personal care products and cosmetics.


Arsenic and Compounds Uses

Arsenic is an element found in the environment and released through volcanic activity, the weathering of minerals, rocks and ores, or through industrial production. Inorganic arsenic is usually a gray metal found in the earth’s surface vis-à-vis arsine which is an offensive smelling gas. As an organic compound, arsenic is basically non-toxic; The exposure of human subjects is through the food that they consume like fish and shellfish. Arsenic is used in wood preservation as insecticide and poison and  the manufacture of agricultural products for poultry and swine, medicines before the advent of modern antibiotics. It is used for the treatment of cancer and locating tumors, and stimulants. In industry, it is widely used as alloys for the making of batteries   and in the manufacture of microelectronics and semi-conductor. It was used by the United States military establishment for chemical warfare during the Vietnam War.  Today, it is also used as an ingredient in the production of pigments, optical glass, bronzing, and pyrotechnics.

Health effects of Arsenic and compounds

Arsenic is found in almost all the elements of the environment air, water, and earth.  It is generally ingested in the drinking of groundwater and present in most plants, leafy vegetables, rice, fruits. and aquatic products which are mostly contaminated with this element. Arsenic contamination informs the food chain and lower forms of organic life bear the arsenic as these are consumed by higher forms including human beings. One of the most critical issues pertaining to human beings is the consumption of ground water contaminated with arsenic which has caused deaths in many rural communities worldwide. Typical symptoms that afflict human beings as a result of an overdose of arsenic poisoning through inhalation and ingestion are vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. Muscle cramps, numbness of the extremities and death might result out of extreme poisoning situations. On the other hand, scientific researches show that long-term exposure to arsenic result in lesions leading to skin cancer, development and growth defects, nervous disorder, diabetes, and damage of the cardiovascular system.

Environmental Effects of Arsenic and compounds

Arsenic while it is a major pollutant of the environment is not a subject of discussions and issues  that relate climate change, ozone layer depletion, the rising of ocean levels, the greenhouse effect, the melting of ice caps among many concerns.  Arsenic contamination is focused on the existing quality of water which has caused death and disease worldwide. In fact, many rural communities using groundwater for drinking and cooking, technologies are being evolved to minimize and /or eliminate the threat of arsenic poisoning which impacts plant and animal life and human communities through the passing of arsenic along the food chain from the lower forms of life to human subjects. As the food is consumed, arsenic moves up the ladder of the food chain through the use of contaminated water for watering in agriculture, cooking food and washing implements and household equipment, and the drinking of contaminated water. Interventionist technologies like digging deeper wells to reach pure water, chelation, the eating of safe and nutritious food, and education of the community minimize the negative health and environmental impact of arsenic.


Chromium (III) Compounds Uses

There are two types of chromium compounds Chromium III (trivalent chromium) and Chromium VI (hexavalent chromium) both found in the environment (rocks, soil, animals, plants and volcanic residue. As an important dietary element, it is needed by the human body to sustain metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat.  Thus, both are elements that are important to human life, but Chromium 3 is the less toxic of these two and Chromium IV can be detoxified to Chromium III. Industries that use chromium are numerous: ore-refining, stainless steel production, chrome plating, chemicals processing, cement manufacturing, automotive parts manufacturing and assembly, leather coloring and tanning, and pigments manufacturing among others. This element is a catalyst and an alloy used to harden steel. It is used an ingredient for the manufacture of dyes, paint pigments, fungicides, refractory bricks, and wood preservatives. Additional industrial applications include photography processing, water treatment, medicinal astringents and antiseptics manufacturing, and nuclear research.

Health effects of Chromium (III) compounds

Chromium is a white hard metallic substance that is highly resistant to corrosion and appears in many forms. Chromium 3 and the other types of chromium are toxic are high levels of exposure. Respiratory problems and asthma attacks and skin allergy (similar to eczema) and irritation and/or skin burning (particularly true of the effects of Chromium VI) might result out of excessive chromium exposure. While Chromium is important to the daily diet of human subjects and is present in food. No research project focused on human subjects  associates  carcinogenicity, cancer,  and growth and development  defects with  Chromium 3,  Exposure to chromium occurs in food, water, and air through the processes of inhalation and ingestion is absorbed by human beings. Thus, chromium is present in plants and aquatic life.  Chromium, as a substance, is not easily dissolved and when found in water, adheres to particles. The atmosphere is contaminated by the emissions and residues from the processing of natural gas, oil, and coal.

Environmental Effects of Chromium (III) compounds

Despite the proliferation of Chromium in water, soil, and air and the difficulty to dissolve the metallic substance in some of its forms, no environmental research associates this element with environmental degradation related to the frequent occurrence of natural disasters (particularly along the Ring of Fire), climate change, the depletion of the ozone layer, the rising of the world’s ocean levels, the greenhouse effect, the quality of air and the air pollution, the melting of ice caps. etc. Chromium enters the environment through the release of the residue of manufacturing processes using chromium related to the stainless steel, leather tanning, automotive production chrome plating among others into the soil, water, and air. Since chromium is not easily dissolved, the element adheres to the particles and settles from air after a few days. The worst effects of chromium ingestion and inhalation is suffered by human subjects who are afflicted by skin diseases and respiratory attacks including asthma.


Chloroform (trichloromethane) Uses

Chloroform characterized by Jean Baptiste Dumas in the 19th century is a substance that appears in a heavy volatile liquid form. Sources affirm that this substance is found in seaweed and, perhaps, in some forms of fungi; however, it is industrially produced by heating methyl chloride with chlorine to 500C. The uses of this element vary from ingredients for refrigerants, solvents for resins, rubbers, greases, waxes, adhesives, fats, oils, and dry cleaning in a laboratory and chemical manufacturing setting, dye production, reagent in organic synthesis, fumigants, extinguishers, insecticides. biocides to anesthesia, and as primary ingredient in the production of Teflon and the manufacture of plastics…   Chloroform is popular in the public realm as a substance used among criminals to daze and knock out prospective victims to submission. Because of its toxicity, the Food and Drug Agency has prohibited the use of chloroform as an ingredient in drugs, cough medicines, cosmetics, food packaging, and personal care products.

Health effects of Chloroform (trichloromethane)

Symptoms of excessive chloroform exposure usually brought about by inhalation derived from the use of chloroform-bearing manufactured and industrial items particularly used as household products, plastics, personal care products, cosmetics, food packaging, drugs and cough medicines (which have been banned by the US Food and Drug Agency) are dizziness, mental dullness, confusion, distortions in perception, loss of appetite, nausea, headaches, fatigue, jaundice, and eye irritation.  The body organs that are mostly affected by this exposure are the eyes, heart, kidneys, liver, and the central nervous system. Government regulatory agencies inform the public that the odor of chloroform can be perceived only when it has exceeded the minimum tolerable exposure. Scientific studies show that there is no danger of chloroform exposure through drinking water and foodstuff. USEPA studies also affirm that chloroform is not likely to be a carcinogen for human beings, and is not a cause for cancer or cell regeneration or mutation.

Environmental Effects of Chloroform (trichloromethane)

Recent reports on the impact of chloroform on the environment are instructive of the following conclusions: The substance does not have a significant effect on the depletion of the ozone layer and is not considered an ozone depleting chemical at low altitudes and at the level of the stratosphere; Chloroform is not classified as a greenhouse gas; low levels of chloroform in the seas and oceans do not constitute a threat to aquatic life; and this substance is not a carcinogenic and does not pose a threat of cancer and/or  mutation  for human subjects.  Moreover, the natural source of non-industrial chloroform is off-shore seawater and volcanic and geological emissions which release a constant outflow of the substance. The removal of chloroform from the environment through rainfall, atmospheric oxidation, and the action of soil and aerobic microorganisms is balanced with the combined output from natural and industrial sources.  The study concludes, thus, that chloroform does not present an ecotoxicological threat to even the most vulnerable organisms.


Acetic Acid (Ethanoic Acid) Uses

Acetic acid is an organic compound which combined with water is popularly known as vinegar. Its sour taste and strong smell make it an indispensable culinary ingredient, a condiment and a preservative for food stuff. It is used as a chemical in the making of photographic film, wood glue, and synthetic fibers and fabrics. The paints and adhesives manufacturing industry accounts for a large proportion of the use of acetic acid in the world market. Other industries using acetic acid are solvents for coatings, paints, and inks, the manufacture of semi-conductors, the production of heroin and other compounds, the manufacture of synthetic camphor, medicine and drug manufacturing, food preservation, and the manufacture of mordants for dyes, pigments, indigo dye, fungicide, and pesticides. It is also used as a common chemical reagent for organic synthesis. Perhaps, its popular household use as disinfectant and cleaning agent for certain surfaces and household items is sometimes overlooked to complement its traditional historical use as flavoring for food.

Health effects of Acetic acid (ethanoic acid)

Acetic acid in its pure undiluted  form is harmful to the skin and can cause burns and blisters and severe organ damage  in contrast to the familiar  vinegar (acetic acid mixed with water) which is harmless for human consumption through inhalation or ingestion. Acetic acid is sourced naturally from plant juices and body fluids. A few decades ago, Monsanto started the commercial production of acetic acid for manufacturing and industry.  Concentrated acetic acid can permanently damage the eyes and cause irritation to the mucous membrane. Inhalation of vapors can damage the respiratory system, the skin, the eyes, teeth, and the lungs and cause bronchitis and pharyngitis.  Ingestion causes damage in the digestive system, vomiting, diarrhea, pain, and shock.  To minimize the effect of the ingestion, skin contact, and inhalation of pure acetic acid, a long flush of water is generally recommended as a first-aid measure against accidental contact with this substance… In high temperatures, this substance is flammable.

Environmental Effects of Acetic acid (ethanoic acid)

Scientific studies confirm that acetic acid is not an environmental hazard and is not implicated in environmental degradation and its manifestations in air pollution, the depletion of the ozone layer, the melting of ice caps, etc.  While acetic acid might appear as particles in the ambient environment, its removal is facilitated by exposure to natural water and wet and dry deposition. There is no evidence that acetic acid accumulates in organisms or contaminates the food chain.


Hydrogen Sulfide Uses

Hydrogen sulfide is a chemical compound that is harmful to human subjects and the environment. It is a highly combustible, highly toxic, poisonous, corrosive, and flammable gas It is a product of the disintegration of organisms   without the aid of oxygen in the environment of sewers and swamps emitting a foul smell. It is also emitted by the human body, volcanic activity, natural gas, well water, and rock salts. It is used as fuel gas in the form of natural gas, biogas, and LPG and  in the production of thioorganic compounds, alkali metal sulfides and the processing of hides and pulp, the qualitative inorganic analysis of metal ion in analytical chemistry, the purification of metal ores, the separation of deuterium oxide  from normal water, researches on the  prevention of strokes, heart disease and arthritis, the quest for anti-aging and antioxidant components in red wine,   and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of superconductors.

Health effects of Hydrogen sulfide

Since Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely harmful poisonous gas, it is handled with extreme care. The central nervous system suffers the greatest damage with high level exposure to this gas with the onslaught of mood changes like anger, confusion, depression, anxiety, and fatigue and significant changes in reaction time, psychomotor speed, color discrimination, and balance. Lower level (and/or long-term) exposure  symptoms caused by skin contact and inhalation are eye inflammation and irritation, sore throat, cough, nausea, shortness of breath, fatigue, headaches, irritability, intellectual decline, motor, motor deficiency, altered sense of smell. poor memory, yellowing of the skin, tissue death and dizziness. In some cases studied, exposure is associated with reproductive problems and miscarriages.  High level exposure through skin contact and inhalation might result in lung irritation, liquid in the lungs, collapse, paralysis, breathing problems, and death.  The liquid form of this gas may cause frostbite. Numerous deaths have occurred in confined and/or spaces with poor air circulation.

Environmental Effects of Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide, a major element in the cycle of sulfur, is a harmful and toxic gas to human subjects and other forms of  oxygen-dependent life in this planet. Scientific  research  attributes  the mass extinction of many life forms on this planet during certain geological periods in the past to their exposure  and the build-up of  this substance  which eliminates life-supporting oxygen.  Research also affirms the possibility that the accumulation of thus substance during these periods resulted out of intense volcanic activity which warmed the earth and obstructed the production of oxygen causing the depletion of the ozone layer and the destruction of  oxygen-generating life in this planet. In certain areas , today, the lack of oxygen supply and over-supply of this substance has destroyed aquatic life because of its high-toxicity. On the other hand, certain  special species, mostly invertebrates , found off  the coast of Namibia and the Dead Sea, thrive on hydrogen sulfide-rich fresh-water springs and in the deep sea. Here, these organisms thrive on chemosynthesis rather than photosynthesis.


Cobalt and Compounds Uses

Cobalt is an element that is silver gray metal in appearance that is not present on earth in its pure form although small amounts are found in rocks, soil, water, plant and animals and in meteorites. Mined from copper and nickel ores, Cobalt was used in pigments, jewelry, cosmetics, and coloring glass with blue in ancient societies. This element is used extensively as an alloy in the manufacture of prosthetics and hip and knee replacements and dental prosthetics, and platinum for jewelry making. It is used in the manufacture of lithium batteries, as an oxidation catalyst, as a drying agent in paints, inks, and varnishes, the removal of impurities in petroleum, and the production of gamma rays. It is also used for external beam radiotherapy, the sterilization of medical waste and supplies and food, the manufacture of x-ray fluorescent devices, porcelain enamels, vitamin B12, a cure for cobalt deficiency, and the extraction of energy from fats and protein.

Health effects of Cobalt and compounds

Cobalt is both beneficial and harmful to human health. In the form of vitamin B12 which is essential for human health, it cures anemia and produces red blood cells. These red blood cells are important in maintaining the good health of pregnant women. This substance is also vital in maintaining the good health of cattle and sheep. Moreover, Cobalt derived from the environment is not harmful to animals and humans. On the other hand, exposure to large amounts of cobalt results in the following symptoms for human subjects: lung problems, wheezing, asthma, pneumonia, skin rashes and heart problems, nausea, and vomiting for beer-drinkers, and death. Effects on the thyroid and vision problems were observed in some cases. Exposure to radioactive cobalt through gamma rays is death-dealing. Here, the amount and length of exposure determine the consequences to human health which range from cell damage to cancer-generating genetic effects and reproductive problems.

Environmental Effects of Cobalt and compounds

Cobalt is an element that is not directly associated with environmental degradation as shown by scientific researches and discourses. Cobalt is usually associated with other elements like copper, nickel, manganese, and arsenic and may be released into environment as a consequence of nuclear accidents, radioactive dumping and waste landfills or residues from nuclear power operations. Cobalt always appears in particles of varying sizes after it released into the environment. The element is not classified as a carcinogen by EPA nor has it indicated a reference doze or concentration for this substance.  Moreover, it is not included among the greenhouse gases or in the discussions on ozone layer depletion, climate change, melting of ice caps, or the rising of ocean and sea levels. Concerns on cobalt is confined to the area of public health as a natural element found in water, the soil, and the air which are sources of exposure to this element.  Areas where cobalt is manufactured and processed extensively show high exposure risks.


Cyanide (Inorganic) Compounds Uses

Cyanide is present in the environment combined with other chemicals like carbon and nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide is a colorless or pale blue liquid or gas and sodium, potassium, and   calcium cyanide are salts soluble in water. In fact, cyanide is retained as a particle but is water soluble, but takes years to breakdown in air. Food from nature contains cyanide like cassava, the pit of wild cherry, almonds, sorghum, lima beans etc. Degraded organic life, fungi, and bacteria usually contain cyanide  While cyanide in the form of vitamin B12 is needed by the body, but must be consumed in minimal doses, this substance is highly toxic to humans, plant and animal life, and aquatic life.  Electroplating, metallurgy, the manufacture of organic chemicals, synthetic rubber, plastic, and fibers,  photography, the extraction of gold and silver from rocks, petroleum,  industries of iron and steel, and the processing of leather use cyanide salts. This element is a component in the production of fumigation chemicals for buildings and ships, insecticides, pesticides, and rodenticides.

Health effects of Cyanide (inorganic) compounds

Cyanide is highly flammable and toxic for human life. This fast-acting poisonous substance may be inhaled, ingested, and absorbed by the skin. The initial symptom is severe difficulty in breathing followed by convulsions and loss of consciousness, pounding of the heart, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat among others. These show that exposure to high levels of cyanide damages the central nervous, the respiratory, pulmonary, and digestive systems which might prove fatal to the victim. Long term low level exposure to this substance results in deafness, loss of vision, and deterioration of muscle coordination. Some cases show that the thyroid gland is damaged by this exposure causing retardation the growth and development of children and the over activity of the organ itself. These effects are largely visible among people who consume food (particularly staple) with cyanide context like cassava and sorghum. These are the consequences that people who work in cyanide-based industries, exposed extensively to smokers, or consume food and drink contaminated by this substance.

Environmental Effects of Cyanide (inorganic) compounds

Cyanide, despite its poisonous effects on organism including human beings in high doses, is not implicated in the current discourses on environmental destruction and degradation. Scientific studies on this substance show that cyanide is sourced naturally and does not persist in the environment and is toxic only in certain forms and concentrations, Moreover, it is neither cumulative nor radioactive and can be safely manufactured, stored, and transported. Thousands of cyanide manufacturing plants (particularly engaged in gold recovery) and cyanide-based industries have been opened (and closed) since the 19th century and no reports of environmental contamination, degradation, or destruction has been documented on their operations. In the instance of Bulgaria, the downstream water from a former mine is drinkable today. Plant growth exposed to cyanide tailings is normal in many instances and the safety of animal life is ensured by the rapid detoxification of this substance. In sum, there is no evidence that shows the carcinogenic, accumulative, mutagenic and mutagenic character of this element.


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Uses

Polycylic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (or PAHS) are white to pale yellow-green substances that are combined together in groups of two or more chemicals produced by the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas and garbage. Natural sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are forest and grass fires, oil seeps, volcanoes, wood, corn, oil and chlorophyllous plants, fungi, and bacteria. Other sources are petroleum, electric power generation, refuse incineration, home heating, the production of coal tar, asphalt, coke, and carbon black, and internal combustion engines.  These substances are persistent and stay in the environment for long periods of time. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are used basically for research purposes and the manufacture of   electronics, liquid crystal, dyes and pigments, pesticides,  resins and thermoset plastic, and medicines and pharmaceuticals, agricultural and photographic products,  agrochemicals and wood preservative diluents,  and  asphalt and roofing tar. The consequences of exposure to PAHs, given this array of industrial sources and uses, are objects of scientific scrutiny for toxicity and carcinogenic effects.

Health effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PAH exposure occurs in the environment (exhaust from vehicles, fumes and residues of industrial products containing PAH), at home (smoking, the use of PAH generating methods of cooking like grilling and charring, the consumption of PAH-contaminated food), and at workplace (exposure in plants and industries using PAH content). Research on animal subjects documents that PAH exposure produces tumors and creates reproductive problems.  Human beings are exposed to PAH through ingestion (food and drink consumption), inhalation (breathing of vapors and fumes, and skin contact.  Exposure by human beings to PAH results in eye irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, and skin irritation and inflammation. Prolonged exposure to PAH among  human subjects cause eye irritation, the weakening of  immunity against disease, breathing and lung problems, liver and kidney defects, skin inflammation among others.  Overexposure to napthalene negatively affects red blood cells.  PAH is associated with carcinogenic-based mutation of cells and reproductive problems, and the weakening of the immunity system among human subjects.

Environmental Effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Scientific research confirms  the carcinogenic effects and immunotoxicity of PAHs. When PAHs are released into the environment, they are absorbed into particles and are persistent in this form. It takes days and weeks to breakdown PAH-content in the environment. Generally insoluble in water, it takes months for microbial organisms to break down PAH that have settled (or sedimented) at the bottom of water systems. PAHs are toxic to birds and aquatic life especially in the presence of ultraviolet rays. PAHs are equally toxic to plant life, in general and relocate substances in the various parts of the plant although some species possess substances that protect them from PAH. PAH in the environment is bioaccumulative. At best, scientific studies associate PAHs to air pollution which rationalizes public campaigns focused on the hazards of passive smoking, the regular monitoring of air pollution, and the adaption of technologies for the reduction of emissions through filtration, the treatment of effluents, and the use of converters and the trapping of particles from vehicles.


Carbon Disulfide Uses

Carbon disulfide is a liquid colorless volatile compound that is important in organic chemistry and is generally used as a solvent in manufacturing and industry.  Its widespread use is in the fumigation of airtight spaces like storage bins, railroad box cars, ship holds, barges, grain elevators, cereal mills etc.  Its agricultural uses include the fumigation of grains and nurseries, fruit preservation, and as soil disinfectant. It is a solvent for bromine, fats, iodine resins, phosphorus, sulfur, rubber, and asphalt. Manufacturing and industry use this element for the production of electronic vacuum tubes, viscose rayon, cellophane film, carbon tetrachloride among others. Research attempts during the 19th century focused on the possible use of this substance as fuel for locomotives and steam engines or the reuse of waste heat produced by combustion or condensation for these machines. These experiments did not flourish and never reached commercialization because of the substance’s low boiling point and the immediate dangers of poisoning and/or explosion.

Health effects of Carbon disulfide

Exposure to this element is mainly derived from urban areas with factories and plants in contrast to low-levels of release found in rural areas. Scientific research shows that drinking water samples contain certain amount of this substance. Emissions of low level might be derived from volcanic activity and marshlands. Hence, exposure to carbon disulfide   normally occurs through inhalation. High level short-term inhalation of carbon disulfide in workplaces specifically located in industrial and manufacturing establishments producing and/or using this substance usually results in breathing problems, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, mood changes, vision problems, delirium, convulsions and chest pains for human subjects.  Severe effects in the nervous system are the major consequences of long-term exposure of this substance for both human beings and animals.  Reproductive system effects among males (low sperm count) and females (menstrual disruption and problems) are associated with exposure to this substance as well.  There is no scientific evidence of carcinogen-related effects associated with this element.

Environmental Effects of Carbon disulfide

Scientific researches do not associate carbon disulfide with environmental deterioration and degradation related to air pollution, climate change, greenhouses gases, rising ocean levels, melting ice caps, etc.  Nature releases small amounts of this substance into the environment through volcanoes, marshlands, and from the activity of microorganisms in the soil which makes it difficult to scientifically monitor and observe. In its pure form, carbon disulfide is a pleasant smelling colorless liquid vis-à-vis processed carbon disulfide which is an unpleasant smelling yellow liquid. Both are volatile and flammable and evaporate at room temperature. The fact that this substance easily evaporates diminishes its toxic and/or carcinogenic effects on the environment. While naturally found in coastal and ocean waters, this substance is found in small quantities in ground water. Heavier than other particles in the air, it breaks down into simpler substances after an estimated 12 days period. The break down process of this substance is longer when released in the soil and finds its way into groundwater and is not absorbed by organisms in water.


Nitric Acid Uses

Nitric acid, a highly corrosive acid, is mainly used in the manufacture of fertilizers and organic chemicals (as ammonium nitrate) and explosives and a lesser quantity is use for the production of polyurethane and polyamides, pigments and dyes and as an oxidizing agent.  As a highly effective oxidizing agent, it is also used as rocket propellant for those using liquid fuel (ie BOMARC missile), in the aging and finishing of wood products made of maple and pine, the pickling of stainless steel and in the etching of metals, a spot test for alkaloids (ie LSD) giving these varied color emissions, and the protection of ferrous alloys from corrosion. It is also important in industries engaged in the production of synthetic fibers, electric circuit boards, electroplating, laboratory chemicals, metal cleaning, semi-conductors, printing, photoengraving, jewelry manufacture and pharmaceuticals. It is produced by the oxidation of ammonia and the absorption of the resulting nitrogen oxides.

Health effects of Nitric acid

The health problem generated from the exposure to nitric acid is largely  respiratory in character by inhalation of the compound  as vapor, fumes from exhaust or from the burning of nitrogen-bearing organic substances.  In isolated cases, it might be ingested in liquid form. A product of high temperature during  severe thunderstorms when nitric acid is formed from a combination of nitrogen dioxide  and water or through industrial processing, this extremely acidic and highly corrosive compound appears in low quantities in the atmosphere. Symptoms of irritation of the eyes, throat, lungs,  teeth, severe coughing, chest pains and breathing problems and burned skin are results of exposure to this substance, Human subjects who live near industrial and manufacturing sites using or producing nitric acid are vulnerable to the disease borne by the emissions from this compound. Scientific studies show that nitric acid is not associated with carcinogens and mutagens. Standard first-aid treatment of acid spills is the thorough washing of the affected area of the body to cool the surrounding tissues and the underlying skin to prevent secondary damage.

Environmental Effects of Nitric acid

Nitric acid appears in the environment in the form of gas or vapour. It combines into a compound with ammonia and persists no longer than 15 days. Moreover, it is non-accumulative in animal or plant life and is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic and is easily rained or washed out in the environmental context. Hence, it is not a subject of scientific studies on environmental degradation and deterioration and is not implicated in discourses on air pollution, the greenhouse effect, the depletion of the ozone layer, the melting of ice caps, climate changes or the protracted debates on clean air legislations and practices worldwide.


Oxides of Nitrogen Uses

Nitrous oxide is popularly known as “laughing gas” because of its euphoric effects after inhalation. This colorless gas is mainly used as an anaesthetic in medicine and dentistry. These euphoric effects  has opened an innovative use of the substance in the recreations industry in balloon inflation, whippets, and crackers, Despite its non-flammable character, this substance is widely used in the propulsion of rockets and in giving boost and power to racing cars. The aeronautics industry uses this substance to boost power for high altitude flying by the following aircraft models: the Luftwaffe with theG1 system during World War 2, the reconnaissance, high-speed bombers, and the interceptor aircraft. In the industries mentioned, the use of this powerful substance, in some instances, causes irreparable damage to the engine is also used in the manufacture of food additives and canisters and  aerosol sprays for whipped cream and cooking oil and similar household and kitchen products, and in the manufacture of snack food.

Health effects of Oxides of nitrogen

Nitrous oxide is a compressed liquefied gas which generates risks related to the respiratory system and its use as an anaesthetic in medical, dental and veterinary medicine. Pharmaceuticals using this substance are prescription medicines. Exposure to this substance results in problems related to mental performance, audio-visual perception and manual dexterity. High level exposure causes Vitamin B12 deficiency through oxidation which can occur within weeks after exposure, numbness. Reproductive problems among pregnant women and animal subjects are noted by scientific studies.  The Vitamin B12 deficiency can be treated but normalization of health might be slow. The particles that bear this substance can damage the lungs and cause bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, heart disease and death. Researches observe that risks of exposure through inhalation to this substance are higher for those who live in mass housing units close to highways and major traffic arteries because of vehicular emissions. Particularly vulnerable regardless of age are non-Causasian and the economically deprived who dwell in these housing projects.

Environmental Effects of Oxides of nitrogen

Nitrous oxide research points to the extreme harm and destruction this substance generates in the environment.  This substance reacts with organic compounds in the presence of sunlight and heat to create smog (ground level ozone) which literally encircles the earth. This damages the pulmonary and respiratory systems and reduces agricultural productivity. Acid rain also generated by   this substance destroys vehicles, massive structures and buildings, and monuments and increases the acidity of water systems which makes these inhospitable for many forms of aquatic life.  Particles created by the combination of nitrous oxide and other elements significantly inform public health damages the pulmonary, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems of human subjects. The quality of water systems particularly in coastal areas deteriorates significantly with the increase in nitrogen content and causes oxygen depletion and reduces aquatic life. Lastly, this substance is a greenhouse gas, the fourth largest in emissions following water vapour, carbon dioxide, and methane which result in global warming and the rise in the temperature in this planet exposing all life to risk with the rising of ocean levels. Toxic chemicals derived from this substance have high mutagenic potentials.


Phenol Uses

Phenol is traditionally naturally derived from coal tar, but is basically sourced as product of petroleum and petro-chemical industries today. A pleasantly smelling organic compound, phenol is converted to plastics is widely used for the following industrial and manufacturing products: resins, pharmaceutical drugs (including aspirin, and those used to treat pharyngitis), detergents, herbicides, bakelite, nylon polycarbonates, epoxies among many. Given these, its applications are extensive in the wood (plywood), construction, aviation (as paint strippers), automotive, appliance, and medical (ie disinfectant, ear and nose drops, throat, and lozenges) industries and in the manufacture of personal care products (ie cosmetics, sun screens, skin lightening, hair coloring, and mouthwashes).  It is also used in the surgical procedure for the removal of ingrown toenails.  While it is similar to alcohol, it has higher acidity and can cause chemical burns if not properly and safely handled. Moreover, its price is within a reasonable range which enables many to access it for small scale projects.

Health effects of Phenol

Phenol is notorious as an inexpensive drug used by the Nazis in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp to exterminate thousands of Jews by injection during World War II. It is present in human urine, in the chemistry of elephants, and in some species of plants. Hazards of phenol occur through inhalation and skim contact.  Phenol has a corrosive effect on the human body through inhalation and skin contact. The vapors of phenol might cause respiratory problems and lung edema, seizures, and coma. Phenol also damages the central nervous system and the kidneys through inhalation. The skin easily absorbs the substance and quickly spreads to other parts of the human body regardless of the size of the area of contact. The areas of chemical burns are treated with soothing chemicals and/or by washing using water. Phenol has no association as a carcinogen, but causes harmful effects on the reproductive system manifested by increased risk of abortion, retardation of the utero, and low birth weight.

Environmental Effects of Phenol

Scientific research classifies phenol as a common pollutant especially of the water systems which causes organic damage to aquatic life including mutagenic effects and the absorption of the substance into the organic system. Given this, these researches propose the treatment of polluted water through evaporation, distillation, ionic exchange, and precipitation before water from phenol-bearing industries before it is released into the water systems. This substance is minimally persistent and is easily removed from the air, soil, and water with a day to weeks of their release, except in cases of exposure to large quantities or the regular outflow of the toxic substance from industrial and/or manufacturing sources. Studies show that pollution by phenol occurs in areas of extensive industrial activity, the manufacturing of products using phenol, landfills, hazardous waste sites, and/or seepage to ground water. Despite these, phenol is not implicated and/or associated with environmental degradation and destruction issues like climate change, ozone layer depletion, greenhouse gases, melting ice caps, the rising of ocean levels etc.


Ammonia (total) Uses

Ammonia is a hydrogen-nitrogen compound that is widely used in manufacturing and industry. This colorless gas is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, food, fertilizers, cleaning agents. This substance originates in the decay of organic life, in rainwater, fertile soil, seawater, crystals, and in areas of volcanic activity. These are found as well the kidneys of human subjects and in Patagonian guano. Other planets in the solar system have this substance in their atmospheres. About 2/3s of commercial ammonia is used as fertilizer to improve the quality and increase the yield of agricultural products. It is also extensively used in the production of other compounds. Ammonia is a basic ingredient in the commercial manufacture of household cleaners particularly of class, porcelain, stainless steel, and oven and for the removal of grime in appliances.  It is used to eliminate bacteria in food, the remediation of gas emissions, refrigeration, fuel for rocket ships and vehicular motors, in the manufacture of textile and wood working, and in the lifting of dirigibles (airships).

Health effects of Ammonia (total)

Scientific research shows that ammonia toxicity has minimal effect on human subjects and mammals because their bodies process ammonia and the residue is excreted through the urine. In fact, ammonia that is inhaled is exhaled. Aquatic animals, however, do not possess the same organs to process ammonia and absorb the toxic substance. This makes ammonia a dangerous substance in the environment. High ammonia content damages the organs of fishes, destroys fish stocks, and reduces the supply of fish during certain seasons of the year. While ammonia is not a pollutant for human subjects, the use of this substance in household products might be dangerous through inhalation and/or skin exposure. This exposure causes irritation to the eyes, the mucous membrane, and the skin. Consumers are told as well not to mix chemical substances from household products especially with bleach which creates poisonous gas. Ammonia in drinking water is the result of the release of this substance into the water systems from decaying organic life and the residue of commercial and industrial waste. Ammonia in food is present in baked goods and cheeses as flavoring stabilizers, and fermentation aids. Emerging technologies are being utilized to manage harmful exposure to ammonia particularly in water: trickling filters, electrochemical removal, submerged membrane bioreactors, and nitrification.

Environmental Effects of Ammonia (total)

Ammonia is not implicated or associated with environmental destruction and degradation as evidences by climate chain, the greenhouse effect, air pollution, the depletion of the ozone layer, the rising of the oceans, the melting of ice caps, etc. Ammonia is absorbed and naturally eliminated by natural processes by all organism including human beings. It also provides nutrients for the all life in the planet and does not bioaccumulate in toxic proportions.


Carbon Monoxide Uses

Carbon monoxide is a highly toxic gas that is naturally produced by the incomplete burning of organisms like wood and coal, slash and burn agriculture, volcanic activity, or forest fires. It is also produced commercially by a method that entails the controlled oxidation of carbon because it is not easily extracted from the air and by the exhaust and fumes from vehicles which is a major source of environmental toxicity. It is used in the manufacture of industrial chemicals and  fuels particularly for vehicles like alcohol, liquid hydrocarbons, and synthesis gas,  in the purification of nickel and in the manufacture of methanol ( another source of fuel)  and mainly as a source of energy and as a reducing agent  which removes the oxygen content from some substances. Because it is odorless, colorless and tasteless, carbon monoxide’s presence is hardly noticed particularly in enclosed areas. It also becomes a liquid and freezes at certain temperatures. It is also slightly soluble in water.

Health effects of Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide is a substance which has been notoriously known as toxic and poisonous for centuries as a result of incomplete burning of coal and wood and the processing of food. Low level exposure through inhalation results in flu-like symptoms, fatigue, breathing problems, motor disorientation, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and euphoria. High exposure causes chest pain, poor vision, loss of consciousness, coma, and death. Scientific research shows that carbon monoxide intervenes in the effective transport of oxygen to the other organs of the body by the red blood cells. Numerous workplaces in the manufacturing and industrial contexts are high risk areas of exposure to this substance which is normally a residue of these processes. Vehicular fumes is one of the world’s most notorious sources of carbon monoxide. At home, carbon monoxide exposure is possible through the fumes from gas-powered household machines like lawnmowers, snow blowers, and power generators, chimneys, fuel burning cooking methods, and tobacco smoking.

Environmental Effects of Carbon monoxide

While notorious as an anthropogenic (ie household use in equipment and machines using gas as fuel, cooking methods that produce the substance or generate pollution, tobacco smoking among others) and natural (incomplete burning of wood or coal, slash and burn agriculture, volcanic activity, biomass production, forest fires among others) pollutant, carbon monoxide is a weak greenhouse gas not directly associated with climate change in contrast to carbon dioxide. It is moderately persistent and lingers in the environment for a month and is mobile in ambient air. It has a number of counter-productive consequence to It aids in the formation of a stronger carbon dioxide, enhances methane productivity, reduces the amounts of sulfates which offset the harmful effects of global warming. High exposure to carbon monoxide is documented in all the cities of the world because of the concentration of motor vehicles which emit this poisonous substance as residue in urban areas in contrast to the low levels of pollution found in total areas.


Benzene Uses

Benzene is both an anthropogenic and natural sourced highly flammable sweet-smelling chemical that appears as a colorless liquid or in light yellow.   This simple cyclic organic compound comes from natural sources in low concentrations which are volcanic activity, forest fires, crude oil, gasoline, and tobacco smoke. A top ranking chemical in terms of industrial uses, benzene’s anthropogenic sources are household products (ie building materials, glues, detergents, furniture wax, paints, photocopier and laser-printed paper, particle board furniture, floor adhesives, wood paneling, paint removers  etc.), manufacturing establishments (the extraction of oils from seeds and nuts, photographic printing, solvents for fats, waxes,  plastics, resins, nylon, synthetic fibers, lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, dyestuffs, paint removers, degreasing agents, arts and crafts supplies, adhesives,  and pesticides ), emissions from gas stations,  vehicles, and industry, depositories of hazardous waste, underground storage tanks, and tobacco smoke. Exposure to benzene happened through inhalation, but this substance might also be ingested from contaminated water.

Health effects of Benzene

Benzene toxicity has always been associated with workplace conditions, accidents, and the use or misuse of the substance. Symptoms affecting the central nervous system like   nausea, headaches, drowsiness, vertigo, and staggering ambulation,  and loss of consciousness resulting  out of the  inhalation of this substance are common among human subjects. In some instances, death occurs. Scientific reports confirm that benzene is a carcinogen that affects the blood and the reproductive system with the rise of numerous cases of leukemia, the destruction of white and red blood cells, cytopenia, and hemorrhage among workers in industries producing and manufacturing benzene-based products worldwide. Evidence also shows the alteration of the chromosomes (clastogen) which document the mutagenic character of this substance at certain levels of exposure. The amount of benzene in ambient air changes depending on the season; hence, there exists a strict monitoring system focused on regulating the amount of benzene circulating in the environment to ensure air quality and public health safety.

Environmental Effects of Benzene

The effects of high and low human exposure to benzene by inhalation and ingestion is well-documented by scientific studies and reviews.  Its impact on human subjects and the environment shows that it is a carcinogen with significant health effects resulting in leukemia,  reproductive system aberrations (in the forms of retardation of fetal growth and development)  and several related diseases regardless of age group. Despite its impact on the health of human and animal subjects as a carcinogenic and mutagenic, benzene is not associated by scientific research and studies to environmental destruction and degradation issues related to climate change, greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, the rising of ocean levels, the melting of polar ice caps etc.


Cadmium and Compounds Uses

The uses of cadmium are numerous as pigments, coatings,   batteries (for rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries),  in electroplating (used in the aircraft industry in steel-related applications), in nuclear fission (for reactors constructed by Westinghouse Electric Company), in the making of compounds (for black and white and colored television picture tubes, surface coating for photo copier drums, red and yellow pigments for watercolors, acrylics, and gouaches, and heat, weathering, and light stabilizers for PVC among others)  and laboratory use (fluorescence microscopes, lasers, and semiconductors). Cadmium is derived from natural sources: burning fossil fuels, coal, oil, and incinerated waste matter. Other sources are the smelting of zinc, copper, and lead, phosphate fertilizers and sludge applied to farmed field. Smoking is another source of cadmium exposure. Cadmium exposure can be scientifically determined through urinalysis or blood test. Cadmium, a bluish-white soft malleable corrosion-resistant metal of high toxicity is a by-product of zinc.  It is insoluble in water and non-flammable as a solid, but may be a source of toxic fumes when used in powder form.

Health effects of Cadmium and compounds

Cadmium exposure occurs through inhalation specifically of tobacco and the consumption of crustaceans, mollusks, offal, algae, liver, grains, vegetables, starchy roots, cocoa powder, dried seaweed and tubers which have significant cadmium content.  Although found mainly in the earth’s crust always combined with zinc, Cadmium is released to the environment through the weathering of rocks and through forest fires and volcanic activity. This substance bioaccumulates through the use of manure, fertilizers and pesticides. Human subjects consume these agricultural products and cadmium exposure occurs.  This leads to the dysfunction and the damage of the cardiovascular, lung, kidney, and respiratory systems. Cadmium is retained for a long time in the kidney where it accumulates and persists and difficult to excrete. Symptoms of excessive cadmium exposure are the following: diarrhea, vomiting, failure of the reproductive system, bone fracture, the dysfunction and damage of the immune and central nervous systems, psychological disorders, cancer, and DNA damage.

Environmental Effects of Cadmium and compounds

Cadmium is an environmental hazard because of the toxicity of the substance to human subjects, animals, and aquatic life.   Ingestion of cadmium by human beings is traced to the content of manures and pesticides found in agricultural or aquatic products such as liver, dried seaweed, mushrooms, mollusks, shellfish and cocoa powder. Human inhalation of tobacco smoke and vehicular fumes destroys the kidneys and liver and the respiratory system.   Cadmium residues move from industry to the soil through the use of agricultural products like pesticides and fertilizers which pollute and contaminate wheat, root crops, and vegetables. This is illustrated by the experience of the agricultural communities along the Jinsu River in Japan from the mining activities and operations which caused pollution from cadmium and other toxic metals. Despite these, cadmium is not associated with environmental degradation and destruction and similar issues related to the depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, the greenhouse effect, the rising of ocean levels, the melting of ice caps etc.


Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) Uses

Ethanol (or ethyl alcohol) is the scientific referent for the household substance commonly known as alcohol or spirits found in alcoholic beverages which readily mixes with water and. Produced by the fermentation of sugars found in products of nature (ie fruits, sawdust coconut, sugarcane bagasse, straw, energy crops, corn cobs etc.) by yeast through fortification or distillation, this substance is used as fuel, antiseptic, solvent, and content for thermometers in the post-mercury period. This substance is also derived from hydrocarbons such as natural gas or coal.  This colorless, volatile, and flammable recreational beverage is a neurotoxic and psychoactive drug. Its uses are numerous: industrial and chemical  feed stock, alcoholic beverages, fuel and fuel additive for motor vehicles, rockets, and aircraft, household heating (as substitute for  traditional fireplaces and  simulating their flame log minus the fumes emitted),  antiseptic (ie wipes and hand sanitizers), solvent, paints, tinctures , and personal care products such as perfumes and deodorants.

Health effects of Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

The toxicity of ethyl alcohol occurs in inhalation, skin exposure, and ingestion.  Through ingestion, this substance affects the central nervous system as a muscle relaxant and a stimulant for inhibitory functions of the brain. In larger doses, it affects coordination and analytical thinking and might result in coma and death. It is also a habit-forming substance (which results in drunkenness) which can lead to alcoholism. Exposure to the vapors of ethyl alcohol may result in irritation of the eyes, drowsiness, headache, stupor, mental excitement or depression, vomiting, and flushing. Exposure might also result in the cracking, peeling, and itching of the skin. Ingestion causes development and growth problems for the unborn child, abortion, and genetic changes in human beings. Over consumption (or habitual drinking of alcoholic beverages) and ingestion of alcohol causes liver damage known as cirrhosis and diseases in the nervous system and glands of human subjects. Scientific research does not provide information on the effects of ethyl alcohol on non-human subjects.

Environmental Effects of Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

Scientific research does not associate ethyl alcohol with environmental degradation or destruction issues like climate change, ozone layer depletion, greenhouse effects, the rising of ocean levels, etc. Ethyl alcohol is a good nutrient and energy source for some forms of organic life. Ethanol oxidizes producing carbon dioxide and water. This substance is easily washed out by water and snow and decomposes with the presence of oxygen in soil and water.


Acetone Uses

Acetone is a highly flammable volatile colorless sweet-smelling organic compound that appears in liquid and vapour forms. It is produced and eliminated in some quantities by the human body and is normally present in the blood and in the urine. Ketonic diets increase the acetone content in the body to prevent epileptic attacks in early childhood cases. Commercial acetone is derived directly or indirectly from propylene through the cumene process.   Acetone is used in the manufacture of plastics, fibers, and drugs. It is also used as solvent for polyester resin, epoxies, superglues, pharmaceuticals, paints and varnishes, as degreaser, as soldering substance, as denaturant, as excipient, and as chemical intermediate. It is used extensively in laboratory work and in the manufacture of processed and unprocessed food, cosmetics (ie dry skin peeling, chemical peeling, nail polish remover, make-up procedures and finishing processes  etc.) general medical applications, food additives, and food packing, brake fluid, photocopying applications among others.

Health effects of Acetone

Acetone is generally regarded as a safe substance and is not implicated as a carcinogen, a mutagen, or a source of neurotoxicity in the conduct of scientific research. It has low toxicity when ingested through food and drinking water or other beverages or inhaled in tobacco smoke or through the use of personal care and other household products. Its presence in beverages, baked food, desserts, and preserves is regarded as safe for the consumption of human subjects.  The liver, in fact, has a high capacity for eliminating the toxicity of this substance. At high concentrations, on the other hand, it has negative effects on the central nervous and the pulmonary systems. It has severe effects of irritation on the eyes. Headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, damage to the skin and the gastro-intestinal tract, and the cornea and disruption of the menstrual cycle for women might result from an extreme exposure to this substance.

Environmental Effects of Acetone

Acetone is not associated with environmental degradation or deterioration issues like climate change, air pollution, ozone layer depletion, rising of ocean levels, the greenhouse effect etc.  In fact, acetone moves in the environment as part of natural and human processes and is produced by all organisms including human beings   and through volcanic activity and forest fires. Acetone is also found in fumes from vehicles, tobacco smoke, and the burning of waste and the escape of the substance as vapors from landfills. Acetone does not persist in the environment and is eliminated within days after exposure. Microbes, evaporation, rainwater, and melting snow also help in the removal of this substance from the environment. Acetone is non-accumulative for aquatic animals. Scientific research on its effects shows that acetone with its minimum of toxicity is not a harmful substance that is not implicated as a carcinogenic, a mutagen, or toxin that is destructive of life on this planet.


Beryllium and Compounds Uses

Beryllium is white-grey-silver metallic substance found in ores, minerals, fossil fuels, and granitic rocks. Dietary sources of this element are found in marine life like plankton which is a food source for other organisms.  The lightest of all solids and elements, it is good conductor of heat and has a very high melting point, but is not magnetic and is highly resistant to corrosion. It is used in the manufacture of aircraft disc brakes, X-ray equipment, space vehicle parts, optics  and related instruments, missile parts, nuclear reactor parts, nuclear weapons, fuel containers, precision instruments, rocket propellants, navigation instruments, heat shields, mirrors, high-speed computers, gas and acetylene lamps, microwave oven components,  high-density electrical circuits, automotive ignition systems, gyroscopes,  and audio components.  It is used in high-technology applications related to power generation, space exploration and satellite construction, military infrastructures, weapons systems, and armaments, electronics, nuclear research and facilities construction, petrochemicals, and ceramics industries as reagent, hardener, and refining.

Health effects of Beryllium and compounds

Scientific researches show that inhalation of beryllium in the forms of dust or fumes has a long-term toxicity that damages the lungs through the growth of lesions and causes the reddening and swelling of the lungs among human subjects or pneumonitis. This element upon inhalation is also deposited in the liver, the spleen, and skeleton despite the activity of the liver to absorb and eliminate this substance through the urine. This toxicity may also result in beryllium disease over the long-term. This substance is associated as a carcinogen among animals and is implicated in lung cancer among human beings in workplace. Exposure to beryllium damages the immunity system of animals and human subjects. Allergy of the skin and conjunctivitis might result out chronic exposure. Before World War II, scientific studies show that this element was implicated in lung cancer deaths among workers in industrial sites (ie manufacture of fluorescent lamps and high technology applications of ceramics) with high beryllium content.

Environmental Effects of Beryllium and compounds

Beryllium is derived from nature from rocks, soil and emissions from industry and waste matter specifically from the burning of coal and oil and is found in the air, water and food. From these sources, it enters the water and environmental systems. Beryllium takes the form of particles as it enters the environment or as compound. dissolved in natural water.  Despite its toxicity for human beings and some other animals, scientific research does not associate this element with environmental destruction and degradation related to climate change, the greenhouse effect, the depletion of the ozone layer, the rising of ocean levels, air pollution etc. Toxicity of this element is more potent in soft water and has acute effects on aquatic animals.  Although, there is no evidence of the persistent tendency or bioaccumulate character of this substance,  its  acute toxicity results in the reproductive damage, high mortality, transformation in behavior and appearance of fishes and other forms of aquatic organisms.


Manganese & Compounds Uses

Manganese is an element that is a normal component found in organism  helps maintain good health of human beings. It occurs in air, water, soil, and food. It is extracted from ore and is also an ingredient  of more than a hundred other minerals. It is used for the production of  batteries, unleaded gasoline, steel, matches, fireworks, porcelain, glass-bonding materials, amethyst glass, etc.  It aids in the production of other manganese compounds, the  chlorination of organic compounds, animal feeds and fertilizers, fungicides, glazes, varnishes, and ceramics, food crops, oxidizing agents,  disinfectants, purifier for water and waste treatment plants, and fresh fruit and flowers preservatives. The manganese in the environment are derived from industrial, landfill,  and fossil fuel emissions, manganese-bearing manufactured substances and applications, volcanic activity, and the erosion of soil and dust. This substance is eliminated by rain or by settling from the environment although scientific research asserts that this process depends on the type of manganese present in the environment.

Health effects of Manganese & compounds

150 words on health effects of this chemical
Manganese is found everywhere in the environment and is important in maintaining the good health of human beings and animals. It helps in bone mineralization, metabolism and its regulation, cell protection from the damaging activity of free-radicals among others. However, high level exposure through inhalation (much less from ingestion and skin exposure) results in the damage of the central nervous system and respiratory (ie cough, bronchitis, and other lung ailments) diseases. Manganism (possibly associated with Parkinson’s disease) is a result of chronic exposure to high levels of manganese, This syndrome is manifested in feelings of weakness and lethargy, disorientation, and tremors also related to Parkinson. According to scientific research, reproductive problems such as impotence and loss of libido have been observed among males with high level exposure to this substance. Similar effects are evident in animal research focused of the reproductive effects of over exposure to this substance. Scientific research does not associate manganese as a carcinogen or mutagen for human subjects and animals.

Environmental Effects of Manganese & compounds

Manganese is not associated with environmental degradation and destruction issues like air pollution, climate change, the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, the rising of ocean levels etc.  Manganese compounds are easily removed from the environment because it is readily soluble in water and settles to the bottom of water systems. Moreover, this substance  and its compounds can oxidize or absorb to sediment particles and can be leached from the soil.  However, residues from manganese-based products found in waste disposal areas might be a source of the contamination of ground water, Hence, natural processes regulate the presence of the substance in the environment except in industrial areas where the likelihood of over exposure is significantly high.



Glutaraldehyde is an unpleasant smelling substance with multiple uses in the health care ( ie cold sterilant), cosmetics (ie preservative), leather-processing (ie cross-linking and tanning) , oil and petrochemical (ie biocide for pipelines and preservative), laboratory (ie tissue-fixative in histology and pathology), paper manufacturing (ie slimicide), veterinary science (ie animal housing), medicine (ie hardening agent and embalming solutions, preparation of grafts and bioprostheses, and other clinical solutions)  industries and water treatment  and portable waste disposal systems (ie antimicrobial). This  colorless, oily, liquid-chemical is used  in diluted form for disinfectant for equipment that cannot be sterilized by heat (ie surgical, ear, eyes, nose, and throat  and dialysis instruments). Human high-level exposure  while not toxic nor carcinogenic can irritate the throat and the lungs, cause breathing difficulties, asthma, sneezing. dermatitis, burning eyes, headaches, eye and vision disorders.  Scientific research does not associate this chemical with environmental degradation or destruction related to climate change or air pollution.


Polychlorinated Dioxins and Furans

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or dioxins  are notorious environmental pollutants  which are implicated as carcinogens and sources of developmental disorders and negative effects of  bioaccumulation among human subjects and wildlife. Dioxins are produced naturally by volcanic activity and forest fires and in the incineration of chlorine-bearing substances. Sources of pollution by dioxins are incineration, backyard burning, metal smelting, refining and manufacturing of chemicals, and environmental reservoirs. These compounds have a long history as pollutants since the 19th century during the apex of the industrial revolution. Human subjects and animals absorb and store these the highly chlorinated dioxins are stored in fatty tissues (particularly the liver) where these are not processed or eliminated. These highly persistent substances  are potentially accumulated in biological and non-biological tissues. Given this, they are present in the soil, water, air and all organic life and are slow to degrade.  The major sources of dioxins are commercial chemicals (ie herbicides and wood preservatives), the residues of incineration, chlorine-based paper and pulp mills, and accidental fires and spills containing furans.Health hazards from dioxins and furan contamination for human subjects affect the skin, eyes, senses, and behavior.  Exposure of women   results in reproductive problems and infant mortality. Given these, treaties and agreements among nations compel signatories to eliminate this threat to the environment.


Ethylene Glycol

Ethylene glycol an odorless sweet syrupy moderately toxic liquid is an extremely useful organic compound for industry and manufacturing.  It is a raw material for the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabrics and PET bottles. It is used in anti-freeze application for household heating and cooling systems (by depressing). In the 19th century, Charles Wurtz prepared glycol from ethyl alcohol and glycerin. This substance was subsequently used as a substitute for glycerol for explosives in Germany during World War 1. Other uses for this organic compound include the removal of water vapor from natural gas, convective heat transfer in cars and computers, air conditioning systems, ice-skating rinks,  geothermal cooling systems, the vitrification of biological tissues, organs and specimen, the de-icing of  airport runways, windshields and aircraft, facilitates the transfer of natural gas from gas fields  to processing facility through ethylene glycol-treated multi-phase pipelines, the manufacture of plastic bottles for soft-drinks, vaccines, non-corrosive cooling systems for computers, shoe polish, inks and dyes, bowling balls, bathtubs, upholstery, carpets, cellophane, pillows, jet skis, packaging films. And wood treatment procedures. Ingestion of this substance is moderately toxic for adults, children, and animals when ingested.  This affects the central nervous system, the heart (cardiopulmonary), and the kidney (renal). Intervention is needed to prevent fatalities.  The impact of this substance on the environment is minimal because it does not persist in the air, water, and soil for a period longer that a few weeks. Hence, this substance is not implicated as carcinogenic or mutagenic for human subjects.


Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are elements or a combination of chemical elements evident in all the organisms of this planet and associated with life

processes. These organic compounds are classified in the following taxons: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are energy-giving compounds which support the physical structure of organisms; Simple carbohydrates (or sugars) bring body fluids to every cell to stimulate the production of energy. The most important is glucose, the product of photosynthesis, is the most fundamental and basic of these carbohydrates.   Complex carbohydrates are composed of linked units of glucose which form starches which come in the form of rice, wheat, corn, potatoes and other types of staple food which store carbohydrates consumes by the body.  Aside from starches, glycogen and cellulose are complex starches which are glucose units that are differently bonded. Glygogen is found in the liver and cellulose found in wood and other plants. Lipids molecules which are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are found in steroids, waxes, and fats. Proteins are the building blocks of organic life which strengthen tissues found in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. Enzymes are constructed by proteins to hasten chemical processes within the cells of organisms. Each specie, following a unique genetic code (a specific sequence of amino acids), produces and processes proteins differently within a cell. Nucleic acid is composed of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a combination of a carbohydrate and a phosphate group of molecules, and a nitrogen molecule. Each cell of an organism is composed of the RNA and the DNA at its nucleus.



A colorless  liquid, cyclohexane is a flammable substance that is manufactured in commercial quantity and used as an intermediate for the production of adipic acid and caprolactam (and other chemical substances) as nylon intermediates, solvent for lacquers and resins, a remover for paint and varnish, fuel for camp stoves, fungicide, and the crystallization of steroids. Cyclohexane is derived from crude oil and residue of petroleum products, exhaust of motor vehicles, waste water from industrial sites, volcanic activity, and tobacco smoke. In the atmosphere, this substance is degraded by reaction to photochemically produced hydroxyl radical within 6 hours. Volatilization and leaching eliminate this substance from contaminating the soil. Bioconcentration and volatilization expel this chemical from water systems. Toxic contamination for human subjects happens through inhalation and physical contact. Animal subjects show effects in the liver and kidneys with over-exposure to this element. Human high-level exposure to this substance results in eye and skin irritation and neurological effects and damage to other organs or death in animals. Cyclohexane is not associated as acarcinogen, a mutagen, or a source of growth and development problems.


Hydrochloric Acid

Originally a product of mixing rock salt and green vitrol or sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive colorless solution of hydrogen chloride and water found in the human body in the form of gastric acid. Its industrial uses include the production organic and inorganic compounds of textile, rubber, PVC plastic, MDI/TDI for polyurethane, paper, household cleaning agents, gelatin and other food additives, fertilizers and dyes, in food products preparation, leather processing, tin and tantalum, the pickling of metals, in electroplating, a chemical reagent, a solvent, in the treatment of sewage and drinking water among others. It is also used in photography. Toxic exposure to this solution occurs through inhalation and skin contact resulting in irritation of the eyes, the skin, and the lungs accompanied by coughing and pulmonary irritation and respiratory tract problems. This substance is not associated with carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive problems and disorders. It is not also implicated in environmental destruction and degradation.


Acrylonitrile (2-propenenitrile)

Acrylonitrile is a colorless highly evaporative and flammable liquid soluble in water (as well as in other organic solvents) that acquires a yellow tone with the presence of impurities. It has numerous industrial uses: It is used in the manufacture of synthetic fibers, resins, rubber, plastics, textiles, carpets, toys, luggage, automotive parts, small appliances, communications gadgets, china, fumigants among others. This substance is highly explosive, flammable, and toxic and releases fumes that are associated as carcinogenic. Workers who have a high level exposure to this substance at their workplaces have higher incidence of lung cancer. Toxicity can be eliminated through the urine and/or the lungs. Human exposure to this substance occurs through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Research shows that this substance is not associated with mutagens and reproductive and growth and development disorders. It is not implicated in the degradation and destruction of the environment and related issues like air pollution, climate change, the greenhouse effect, etc.


Dibutyl Phthalate

Dibutyl phthalate is a substance of low acute and chronic toxicity to human, animal, and plant life. Human exposure to this substance occurs through inhalation and ingestion. The sources of toxicity for this substance are food, particularly seafood, fixtures of homes and buildings, and drinking water. Its household uses are multiple as manufactured items for domestic use and consumption specifically as soft and flexible plastics: raincoats, food wraps, car interiors, vinyl fabrics, floor tiles, bowls etc. Minimal information is available regarding the effects of its toxicity on human subjects, animals, or plants. It is not implicated as a carcinogen, mutagen, or a source of reproductive and growth and development problems for organic life.  It is not associated with environmental degradation and destruction issues like climate change, greenhouse effect, the depletion of the ozone layer etc.


Fluoride Compounds

Flouride compounds all contain the basic chemical of

fluorine almost always in a state of oxidation. It is a yellow-green gas that is naturally derived from the earth as mineral forming different substances as it combines with other chemicals and reaches an oxidation state. With hydrogen, for instance, fluoride as a chemical feed forms hydroflouric acid which while it corrodes other substances except wax, polyethylene, lead, and platinum is important in the production of other chemicals. This substance is important in the manufacture of aluminum, chloroflurocarbons (CFCs), salts, and in the petroleum, chemical, and plastics industries. It is a cleaning agent for bricks and metal castings and processes uranium isotopes, etches and polishes glass, etches enamel, and galvanizes iron, coats cloud light bulbs and in brewing. This substance is not implicated as a carcinogen, a mutagen, or a source of reproductive and growth and development problems. It is not also associated with environmental degradation or destruction related to climate change, the greenhouse effect, or the depletion of the ozone layer.



Methanol, a compound originally derived from the distillation of wood and the metabolism of bacteria, has many innovative applications and uses in modern life. This light volatile flammable simple alcohol is a cheap high performing and more accessible substitute for gasoline or ethanol and fuel for power plants, race cars, and airplanes. It is also increasingly used as treatment for wastewater treatment and appreciated for its low cost and biogradability and capacity to eliminate polluting nitrates from the ecosystem. In these contexts, it is being developed a fuel cell hydrogen carrier for electronic and personal use, is a vital component in the making of biodiesel fuel or transesterification, and is the focus of research projects seeking to use the substance to generate electricity. Lastly,  methanol is used in the manufacture of camping fuel,  plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, resins, magnetic film, safety glass laminate, adhesives, solvents, carpets, insulator, refrigerants, windshield washer fluids, particle boards, and pigments and dyes. This substance is dangerous for human subjects and can cause permanent blindness. Human exposure to methanol is through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact and the formation of format through toxication which causes metabolic disturbances inside the body. Methanol poisoning is an affliction that can be treated by the application of specific drugs. Symptoms of methanol intoxication are headache, nausea, confusion, dizziness, lack of coordination which relate to the central nervous system. Methanol in small amounts is not toxic.  The most extensive use of this substance is in the production of other chemicals with natural gas as feedstock. Methanol is not persistent and is biogradable in both oxygen and oxygen-free environments. Moreover, methanol is not associated as a carcinogen, a mutagen, or the source of reproductive and growth and development defect among human subjects.


Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric acid is a mineral acid whose molecules combine with each other to form compounds bearing the same name. This non-toxic and, at times, corrosive colorless and odorless and non-volatile substance in its pure form appears as a solid in room temperature and pressure. It is used as a buffer agent, electrolyte, and chemical reagent (ie activated carbon,) and in the manufacture of fertilizers, agricultural feeds, pet foods, food additives (ie cola soft drinks, leavening agents)), water treatment chemicals, textiles,  dental medicine,  rust removal,  home cleaning (ie soaps and detergents) and personal care (ie toothpastes, skin care) products. The absorption into the body of this substance occurs by inhalation and ingestion causing irritation of the eyes and skin and the respiratory system, burning sensation, sore throat, abdominal pain, shock or collapse. On the other hand, scientific researches note that excessive consumption of food containing this substance lowers bone density among human subjects.



Phosphorus is a chemical that appears in white and red forms as oxidized minerals in phosphate rocks. White phosphorus glows when exposed to oxygen and is oxidized. This element is found in the DNA, RNA, ATP, and the phospholipids which form each human cell as well as in urine and bone ash. This first used as highly toxic matches and smoke screens, tracer bullets, and incendiary bombs and Molotov cocktails, this element has numerous uses: as fertilizers, detergents, pesticides, and nerve agents, the manufacture of compounds, steel, water softeners, glasses for sodium lamps, fine China, the now obsolete US grenade n-type semi-conductors, among others.  Most food consumed by human beings contain this element from cereal to meat, vegetables, and dairy products. Phosphorus deficiency among humans subjects cause loss of appetite, muscle weakness, bone fragility, numbness of the extremities, and osteoporosis among women. On the other hand, high levels of phosphorus usually found in the bones and teeth may cause cardiovascular and kidney problems.



Tetrachloroethylene (or tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene), chlorocarbon, is used for the dry cleaning of fabrics. This colorless sweet-smelling highly stable and non-flammable liquid is a universal solvent for organic matter and removes grease from automotive and metals and is used as paint strippers and spot removers, and textile for processing. This substance is regarded as a probable carcinogenic and affects the central nervous system and enters the body through inhalation and skin contact which dissolves fats from the skin and causes irritation. It has been detected in some contaminated sources of drinking water. Symptoms like irritation of the upper respiratory system and eyes, kidney dysfunction, impairment of the nervous system and changes in cognitive and motor neuro-behavior. Exposure might also affect the liver, the immune and the blood systems and has been associated to some forms of cancer, reproductive effects like menstrual disruption and lower sperm count among people in workplace. Tetrachloroethylene contaminates the soil and is mobile in groundwater because of its density sinks below the water table and makes it more difficult to eliminate than oil spills. Bioremediation and chemical treatment methods have been effective in eliminating this substance. This substance is also degraded by hydrolysis and reductive dechlorination.


Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

Methyl isobutyl ketone is basically derived  from acetone and is used as antizonant for tires, a solvent for  CS (for CS spray used by the British police),nitrocellulose, paints, varnishes, lacquers, and certain polymers and resins, a denaturing agent, a synthetic flavoring adjuvant, and liquid-liquid extraction as well as for the extraction of  precious metals from cyanide solutions. Exposure by vapor inhalation, ingestion of contaminated water,  and skin contact may cause irritation in the eyes and the mucous membrane, weakness, headache, nausea, lightheadedness, vomiting, dizziness, poor coordination and over the long-term, insomnia, liver (and its enlargement) and kidney problems, and abdominal pain. It is not classified as a carcinogen, or a mutagen, or a source of reproductive and growth and development problems for human subjects. This substance is released to the environment through emissions from vehicles and residue from its use and manufacturing sites, and from waste containing the compound disposed into the oceans or on land.



Benzene is a basic organic chemical in the formulation of aromatic compounds. Together with methylbenzenes, benzene is derived from fractions which are residues in the distillation of oil. These are used in the manufacture of petrol and numerous chemicals. Benzene is used in the manufacture of polystyerene, phenor, propanone, cyclohexane important in the formulation of hexanedioic acid and caprolactam for polyamides, azo dyes, polyurethanes, analgesic (paracetamol), surfactants like alkylbenzene sulfonates,  solvents for resins used in paints, monomer for polyester,plasticisers and in the making of alkyd resins. Various methods are used in the manufacture of this substance: dealkylation, disproportionation, cracking and reforming of fractions from oil distillation, steam cracking of naphtha and other liquid feeds, catalytic reforming of naptha. Other possible methods for the production of this substance are through the processing of biomass, the gasification of biomass to form oil known as bio-oil, and fermentation. There is no data that discusses the toxicity to organic life and the environment of this chemical.



Nickel is a silvery-white-gold lustrous metal that also appears in powdered form on which the features of pure nickel are evident as a highly reactive substance to oxygen. Native nickel on earth is found in meteorites always combined with iron as residue of supernova nucleosynthesis. This combination of metals also constitutes the earth’s core. Original mistaken for a copper derivative, as an ore for a copper mineral, this element because of corrosion-resistant character has been used for plating other metals like iron and brass to retain a high silvery polish. Although, people are allergic to this substance through inhalation and skin contact, nickel is widely used as a metal for coins. Nickel, a ferromagnetic (like iron. Cobalt, and gadolinium) at room temperature and one of the world’s most common alloys, is a catalyst for hydrogenation and a nutrient for microorganisms and plants. Beyond the Curie temperature, nickel losses its magnet. The uses of nickel are numerous: the manufacture of urea that nourishes plant life, jet engine turbine blades, nonferrous alloys and super alloys, electroplating, consumer products stainless steel, alnico (horseshoe) magnets, coinage, rechargeable batteries, electric guitar strings, microphone capsules, plating precious metals, glass tinting, nickel steels, nickel cast irons, nickel mesh for alkaline fuel cells, binder in the cemented tungsten carbide or hard metal industry, etc. Nickel affects human health through the action of nickel-dependent bacteria. This substance

emitted by Siberian volcanic eruptions is believed to have supported methane-producing organisms during one of the most extensive extinction period in the planet’s geological evolution. Moreover, nickel sulfide fumes and dust are carcinogenic and extremely toxic for human subjects.


Organo-tin Compounds

Organotin are sets of chemical compounds classified according to their oxidation states. These substances based on tin and a product of organometallic chemistry and are extensively applied and used in research and industry. These organotin compounds are halides and hydrides, oxides and hydroxides, hypercoordinated stannanes, and triorganotin cations. Organotin compounds have numerous applications and are used in the manufacture of  stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride, tin dioxide on glass bottles, industrial biocides (Tributyltins) for antifungal agents in textiles, paper, wood, pulp and paper, mill systems, breweries, and cooling systems, antifungal paints, agricultural fungicides, miticides, acaricides for the control of spider mites on plants, wood preservatives, marine anti-biofouling agents (tributyltin compounds)  to improve the efficiency of ocean-going ships until a worldwide ban was issued for toxicity, anti-cancer therapy among others. These compounds vary in toxicity and can be highly toxic in various forms. Some are phytotoxic; others are low in toxicity and biological activity.


Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric Acid is one of the most important chemicals in manufacturing and industry. This colorless, highly corrosive (for almost all substances like metals, living tissues, stones, etc) pungent yellow liquid that is water soluble and non-flammable. In its concentrated form, its acidity causes strong dehydrating and oxidizing effects like chemical and thermal burns, and permanent blindness and irreversible damage, if swallowed by human subjects. It is also hygroscopic and is able to absorb water from the air. It is used in the manufacture of lead-batteries, drain cleaners, cleaning agents, mineral processing, detergents, fertilizers, oil refining, waste water processing, and chemical processing. Researches do not implicate this element with carcinogens, mutagens, and sources of reproductive dysfunctions or defects for human or animal subjects. Sulfuric acid is not associated with environmental degradation or destruction related to climate change, ozone layer depletion, and air pollution, the formation of greenhouses gases, the rising of ocean levels, or the melting of icecaps.


Acrylic Acid

Acrylic acid, an organic compound, is a colorless corrosive liquid with a tart smell miscible with water, alcohols, ethers, and chloroform derived from propene, a residue in the production of fossil fuel. This simplest form of unsaturated carboxylic acid is also produced naturally by some species of algae. Used extensively in industry in the manufacture of plastics, coatings, adhesives, latex applications, emulsion polymers, leather finishings, paper coatings,   elastomers, floor polishes, paints, this substance irritates the skin and the eyes and could cause irreversible injury to these organs and pulmonary edema through inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion of contaminated water. Exposure occurs through emissions from manufacturing sites and in the release of wastewater.  This substance is not associated as a carcinogen, mutagen, and a cause of reproductive problems. Acrylic acid is not implicated in environmental degradation and destruction or in related concerns like climate change, the greenhouse effect, and the depletion of the ozone layer.


Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium oxide is commonly known among  others  as a non-prescription short-term medicine that comes in a tablet or capsule form. People use it as antacid as relief for heartburn, acid indigestion, or sour stomach, or as laxative, pre-operative cleanser, and/or a dietary supplement. It is also used for the construction (ie refractory materials and Portland cement manufacturing), chemical (ie preserving books and the making of Kraft paper), agricultural, and environmental industries. As medicine, Magnesium oxide may be ingested with water or fruit juice to remove its unpleasant taste. Directions found on the labels depending on the brand should be strictly followed for effective relief or according to the prescription of the doctor. Medications (magnesium oxide and another drug) should be taken two hours apart. Consult the health professional if cramping and diarrhea, rash or hives, itching, dizziness or lightheadedness, mood or mental changes, unusual tiredness, weakness, nausea, vomiting occur. Side effects that occur in the taking of magnesium oxide or similar medications need to be reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Medical practitioners suggest and recommend that one must keep a list of medicines and supplements for reference when visiting or consulting doctors.



Dichloroethane, a toxic, flammable, and  carcinogenic chlorinated hydrocarbon, is used in the production of vinyl chloride for PVCs.A colorless liquid, it is used to produce organic chemical compound, as reagents and solvents in closed systems for various extraction and cleaning purposes, and until the ban was used as degreaser and paint remover, as lead scavenger in leaded gasoline, dispersant of rubber, as a wetting and penetrating agent for plastics, ore flotation, and grain fumigant among others. Exposure to this substance occurs through inhalation of the vapors from production, storage, use, transport and disposal, skin contact, or ingestion of contaminated water. This results in its effects on the nervous system, the liver, and kidneys, and respiratory and heart-related illnesses. A perennial pollutant and a health hazard, the effects of this substance on human subjects are difficult to treat and its effects can only be managed through bioremediation measures. Because of its toxicity, its use in consumer products is not used in the United States.


Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP)

Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP; dioctyl phthalate, DOP is an oil-soluble viscous organic compound that adds flexibility to plastics (plasticizers). A colorless liquid, DEHP is produced in high volumes for household and related products and acts as solvent for glowsticks It is used extensively as medical plasticizer for polyvinyl resins in the manufacture of intravenous tubings and bags, catheters, dialysis bags, blood bags, transfusion tubings, air tubes and is suspect for leachates received by patients during treatments. Warnings worldwide from governments and international health agencies limit and/or restrict the use of DEHP after effects have been reported regarding its toxicity and adverse effects on pregnant women, the male fetus, lower sperm count, decrease in penis width, and miscarriages. Research associates this substance with obesity among men and the behavior of cardiac cells in culture. Researches are being conducted for the quest of less toxic and hazardous alternatives for DEHP. This substance also spots leaks in protective face gear, filtration systems, electric capacitors, and vacuum pumps. Exposure to DEHP is through ingestion of food and water particularly found in high levels in milk and cheese and oils and fats in food that come in contact with plastic.


Ethyl Acetate

Ethyl acetate is an organic compound of low toxicity derived from nature. A low cost highly evaporative fruit-smelling colorless liquid, this organic compound is used in the production of glues, nail polish removers, in the decaffeinating of tea and coffee, in the manufacture of cigarettes, an activator and hardener of paints, and in the cleaning of circuit boards. It is basically used as a solvent (and diluent) worldwide and is derived from ethanol and acetic acid. It is industrially processed by the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol. It is also used extensively in the manufacture of confectionery, perfumes, and products derived from fruits and in wine-making. Laboratory research uses mixtures of ethyl acetate for column chromatography and extractions. It is also used as an insect killing agent by collectors to facilitate the processes of mounting, collection, and exhibition.



Hexane(s), an alkane of six carbon atoms, are colorless liquids at room temperature derived from gasoline and from the refining of crude oil.  These odorless (when pure) highly flammable highly evaporative substances are cheap, fairly safe, non-persistent, and non-reactive used as solvents. They are used to extract cooking oils derived from seeds (soya, cottonseed, sunflower, flaxseed etc.)  for the manufacture of rubber cement, glues (ie shoes, leather products, roofing etc.) and textiles, degreasing, denaturant for alcohol, printing, and the cleaning of textile, furniture, and leather. In laboratories, hexanes are used to extract contaminants from water and soil. N-hexane is being replaced by n-heptane because of its toxicity. Exposure to hexanes occurs through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contract. This results in irritation of the upper respiratory system, the intestines, vertigo, nausea, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, anorexia, headache, blurred vision, headache, and effects in the central nervous system. A high level exposure could be fatal to human subjects. Workplace poisoning has occurred in Taiwan and China. Environmental effects from n-hexane occur when the substance is released when manufacture, landfills, and accidental spills from transport. However, n-hexane is highly evaporative and does not persist in the environment through the action of bacteria. Plant, animals and other forms of organic life do not retain this substance.


Cumene (1-methylethylbenzene)

Cumene (or isopropylbenzene) is an organic compound derived from an aromatic hydrocarbon that produces crude oil and its refined fuel by-products. This colorless liquid with characteristic odor is used in the manufacture of phenol, acetone, and other chemicals is flammable. Commercial demands of cumene are supplied through the manufacture by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene and propylene. This compound reacts strongly with acids and oxidants and can cause explosions. This can be absorbed by the body through inhalation and skin contact. This substance can cause the irritation of the eyes, the skin, and can cause chemical pneumonitis through aspiration and dermatitis.  Studies show no association of this compound with cancer and reproductive toxicity and reproduction related problems. Since it does not persist in the environment and has high biogradability in water and soil and is readily excreted by humans and rodents, it is not implicated in environmental destruction or degradation. It is, however, toxic to aquatic organisms.



Styrene is an organic compound is a product of ethylbenzene through the alkylation of benzene and ethylene for the production of polystyrene plastics and resins and an intermediate in the manufacturing of ion exchange resins for the production of copolymers. This substance is toxic for human subjects and exposure to this substance produces respiratory effects, irritation of the eyes and the mucous membrane and ingestion causes gastrointestinal problems. High level exposure for human subjects affects the central nervous system and results in headaches, visual problems, disruption in intellectual functions, and problems in the kidneys and in the blood. Researches indicate that this substance might be a possible carcinogen but do not associate it with developmental and reproductive problems despite its toxicity in some quantities to human beings.  Existing data do not show its association with environmental degradation and destruction or issues related to climate change, air pollution, the depletion of the ozone layer or the formation of greenhouse gases.


1,3 – Butadiene (vinyl ethylene)

1,3-Butadiene, a non-corrosive highly flammable and explosive substance is derived  from the manufacture of petroleum for the production of synthetic rubber, plastics, acrylics, automotive tyres, hoses, belts, seals and gaskets, fungicides, latex adhesives, nylon, carpet backing, luggage among other industrial products. Exposure through inhalation (of tobacco smoke, of butadiene-bearing products, or within a poorly ventilated room, or in the midst of heavy traffic) can irritate the eyes and upper respiratory system and can affect the central nervous system. Extensive exposure can damage the heart and the lungs. Research shows that this substance is a possible carcinogen. This substance has a long-term or short term toxicity to aquatic life but does not accumulate in these organisms. It is highly evaporative and becomes gas quickly from a liquid state and decomposes in air in sunlight. Hence, it is not persistent in the environment and is not associated with environmental degradation, with air pollution, climate change, the depletion of the ozone layer, or the formation of greenhouses gases.


Chlorine and Compounds

Chlorine and compounds is a versatile substance which combines with almost any other element. The two most popular compounds produces by chlorine are sodium chloride (table salt for the seasoning and preservation of food and for industrial applications) and hydrochloric acid. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, magnesium chloride, and magnesium chloride are among the most useful compounds derived from chlorine.   Since this substance is not found in nature, it produced through electrolysis of liquid salt. It uses are numerous: as an antiseptic, treatment of drinking water and swimming pools, and in the production of paper products, plastics, dyes, textiles, medicines, insecticides, solvents, and paints. Despite its usefulness and versatility, exposure to chlorine is dangerous for human beings. In its liquid form, it can burn the skin and as a gas, irritate the mucous membrane, and can be fatal after a few deep breaths in concentrated form. Researches do not associate this compound with carcinogens, mutagens, and as a source of reproductive dysfunction.



Dichloromethane (DCM, or methylene chloride), an organic compound, is a colorless volatile liquid with pleasant aroma and is not easily dissolved in water. It is used widely as a solvent. It is naturally derived from oceans, macroalgae, wetlands, and volcanoes and is the product of industrial emissions and the treatment of chloromethane or methane with chlorine gas. It is used in industry as a degreaser and paint stripper, in decaffeinating coffee and tea, in the manufacture of flavorings, aerosol spray propellants, drugs and pharmaceuticals, film coatings, metal cleaners,  plastic welding adhesives for modeling hobbyists, heat-sealed garment transfer, bubble lights, jukebox displays, post-harvest fumigants for grains and strawberries, degreening agent for citrus,  and polyurethane foams. It is also used in the civil engineering field for the testing of materials. Exposure to this substance for human subjects through inhalation affects the central nervous system and disrupts visual, auditory, and motor functions. Although the least toxic among elements of its genre, it can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning and result in the burning of the skin.  Researches show that it might be carcinogenic and cause reproductive problems among pregnant womb.


Methyl Ethyl Ketone

Methyl ethyl ketone is a substance with an acetone-type odor that is liquid in form. This element is water soluble and odorless and widely used as a solvent for industrial production of sums, rein, cellulose acetate, and cellulose nitrate and the manufacture of  synthetic rubber, varnished, paint removers, paraffin, waxes,  glues and other household products. Exposure by inhalation by human subjects causes irritation in the eyes and upper respiratory system headaches, depression, dysfunction of the central nervous system, nausea, and dermatitis. This substance is not associated as and a s a cause of reproductive problems for human beings. Traces of this substance are found in the air by the action of some air pollutants and in drinking and surface water. It is not implicated or associated with environmental destruction or degradation related to climate change, air pollution, the depletion of the ozone layer, or the formation of greenhouse gases.


Methyl Methacrylate

Methyl methacrylate (MMA is a colorless volatile flammable liquid that dissolves in warm water. An organic compound with a repulsive smell, it is used mainly in outdoor advertising materials, PVCs. lighting fixtures, signs and displays, coatings (latex paints, lacquer enamel resins, etc)plumbing and Bathroom fixtures, water repellent for concrete, prosthetic devices in medicine and dentistry, ceramic filler or cement among others. Exposure of human subjects to this substance occurs through inhalation and dermal contact which results in the irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory system and neurological and pulmonary-related symptoms. Contaminated water might be another source of toxic exposure for human beings. Researches show that this substance is not associated as a carcinogen or a mutagen or a source of reproductive dysfunction or problems. It is also not implicated in environmental degradation or destruction related to problems wrought by climate change, air pollution, the depletion of the ozone layer, or the formation of greenhouse gases.


Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is a fluid widely used for insulation and coolants in electrical equipment, transformers, machine operations, carbon paper manufacture, and heat transfers as well as the manufacture of plasticizers in paints and cements, flexible PVC coatings of electrical wiring and electronic equipment, surgical implants, waterproofing compounds, pesticide extenders, flame retardants, adhesives, lubricating oils, sealants, hydraulic fluids, coating for water tanks, bridges and similar structures. The production of this notorious synthetic organic chemical derived from chlorine and persistent environmental pollutant and probable carcinogen for animals and human beings was banned by the US and the Stockholm Convention. Its associations with endocrine and neurotoxicity are similar with those of its group of compounds and dioxin. Bans against PCB content against the following products were imposed: plasticizers in paints and cements, casting agents, fire retardant for fabric treatments, heat stabilizing additives for PVC electrical insulation, paints and waterproofing, railroad ties. PCBs are toxic and have shown mutagenic effects on hormones of human subjects with the rise of reproductive and growth and developmental problems for both males and females. PCBs are persistent (might be excreted through the feces) when absorbed by the human body through inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. Results of this exposure range from skin conditions to liver damage, dermal and ocular lesions, disrupted menstrual cycles, lower immunities, skin sores, fatigue, headaches, and poor cognitive development among others. PCB according to scientific research is a probable carcinogenic for human subjects. Toxicity and the adverse effects of PCB can be eliminated or reduced through incineration (although unsuitable for contaminated soil), irradiation with the use of gamma rays, pyrolysis using plasma (no combustion) and microbial with the use of micro-organisms (or Vitamin B12 through dechlorination), and chemical methods (ie nucleophilic aromatic substitution) to decompose pcbs.



Xylene is a benzene-methyl based highly flammable aromatic hydrocarbon and a major petrochemical used in the manufacture of coke fuel. Xylenes are found in small quantities in gasoline and aeronautic fuel. A greasy colorless solvent, xylene was discovered as an element of wood tar. It is used in the production of plastic bottles, polyester clothing, printing, rubber, leather. Ink, adhesive, art conservation testing materials, paints, varnishes, etc. It is also used in the cleaning of steel, silicon wafers, and integrated circuits, and solvent for paraffin.  Exposure to xylene is through inhalation which results in irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory and neurological systems. Researches show that xylene is not carcinogenic and might be associated with some cases of reproductive disorders affecting the development of the fetus of pregnant women. Mixed xylenes are released into the environment through water, the soils, and aquatic organisms from industrial sources and vehicular exhaust and the residue from solvents in low impact levels.



Zinc a chemical element from  the earth’s crust is found in ores.  Zinc is used for plating which is resistant to corrosion. It is found in many compounds carbonate and gluconate (dietary supplements), chloride (deodorants), pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), sulfide (paints), and methyl (laboratory use). Its uses are the following: anti-corrosion agent, protection of metals, production of alloys, communications

equipment, hardware, musical instruments, water valves, coins, lead replacement, sensing devices, pigments, paints, fire retardant, and rocket propellant among others.  Zinc, most importantly, is used by the human body to maintain good health and treatment for skin infection and common cold.  Deficiency of this mineral causes retardation, slow sexual development, infection susceptibility, diarrhea, loss of immunity, and infection. Excess of zinc, on the other hand, causes lethargy and copper deficiency and lessens iron absorption. Zinc is not associated as a carcinogen, a mutagen, or a source of reproductive and growth and development problems.   Zinc production has caused the released of residues of sulfur oxide and cadmium from manufacturing and industry. Significant amount of the sediments of this substance are found in air and soil and toxic to plants and aquatic life.



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